Introduction: Academic Evaluation and Review Genres

  • Ken Hyland
  • Giuliana Diani


The expression of personal opinions and assessments is a ubiquitous feature of human interaction and, despite its apparently impersonal facade, central to academic writing. It could be argued, in fact, that among all the activities of the academy, what academics mainly do is evaluate. Their research and publishing is a continual round of comparing methods, assessing sources, weighing up outcomes, contrasting claims and considering data. They are constantly making judgements about whether samples are representative, findings are accurate and interpretations valid. The texts they produce while conducting these activities reflect this concern with evaluation and its expression pervades research articles, lectures, conference presentations, textbooks and student assignments.


Book Review Apply Linguistics Academic Writing Applied Linguistic Academic Text 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Biber, D. and Finegan, E. (1989) ‘Styles of Stance in English: Lexical and Grammatical Marking of Evidentiality and Affect’, Text, IX, 1, 93–124.Google Scholar
  2. Bondi, M. (1999) English across Genres: Language Variation in the Discourse of Economics (Modena: Il Fiorino).Google Scholar
  3. Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, P. and Levinson, S. (1987) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  5. Chafe, W. and Nichols, J. (eds) (1986) Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, vol. XX (New Jersey: Ablex).Google Scholar
  6. Conrad, S. and Biber, D. (2000) ‘Adverbial Marking of Stance in Speech and Writing’, in S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 56–73.Google Scholar
  7. Cronin, B. and La Barre, K. (2005) ‘Patterns of Puffery’, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, XXXVII, 1, 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diani, G. (2007) ‘The Representation of Evaluative and Argumentative Procedures: Examples from the Academic Book Review Article’, Textus, XX, 1, 37–56.Google Scholar
  9. Dressen, D. F. (2003) ‘Geologists’ Implicit Persuasive Strategies and the Construction of Evaluative Evidence’, Journal of English for Academic Purposes, II, 4, 273–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology (New York: Basic Books).Google Scholar
  11. Gesuato, S. (2007) ‘Evaluation in Back-Cover Blurbs’, Textus, XX, 1, 83–102.Google Scholar
  12. Hunston, S. (1994) ‘Evaluation and Organization in a Sample of Written Academic Discourse’, in M. Coulthard (ed.) Advances in Written Text Analysis (London: Routledge), 191–218.Google Scholar
  13. Hunston, S. and Thompson, G. (eds) (2000) Evaluation in Text. Authorial Stance and the Construction ofDiscourse (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  14. Hyland, K. (1998) Hedging in Scientific Research Articles (Amsterdam: John Benjamins).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hyland, K. (2000) Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing (London: Longman).Google Scholar
  16. Hyland, K. (2001a) ‘Humble Servants of the Discipline? Self-Mention in Research Articles’, English for Specific Purposes, XX, 3, 207–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hyland, K. (2001b) ‘Bringing in the Reader: Addressee Features in Academic Articles’, Written Communication, XVIII, 4, 549–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hyland, K. (2002) ‘Directives: Power and Engagement in Academic Writing’, Applied Linguistics, XXIII, 2, 215–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hyland, K. (2005a) ‘Stance and Engagement: A Model of Interaction in Academic Discourse’, Discourse Studies, VII, 2, 173–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyland, K. (2005b) Metadiscourse. Exploring Interaction in Writing (London: Continuum).Google Scholar
  21. Hyland, K. and Bondi, M. (eds) (2006) Academic Discourse across Disciplines (Bern: Peter Lang).Google Scholar
  22. Hyland, K. and Tse, P. (2004) ‘Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal’, Applied Linguistics, XXV, 2, 156–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kwan, B. (2006) ‘The Schematic Structure of Literature Reviews in Doctoral Theses of Applied Linguistics’, English for Specific Purposes, XXV, 1, 30–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lindholm-Romantschuk, Y. (1998) Scholarly Book Reviewing in the Social Sciences and Humanities (London: Greenwood Press).Google Scholar
  25. Martin, J. (2000) ‘Beyond Exchange: APPRAISAL Systems in English’, in S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 142–75.Google Scholar
  26. Martin, J. and White, P. (2005) The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English (London: Palgrave).Google Scholar
  27. Noguchi, J. (2006) The Science Review Article: An Opportune Genre in the Construction ofScience (Bern: Peter Lang).Google Scholar
  28. Ochs, E. (ed.) (1989) ‘The Pragmatics of Affect’, Text, IX, 1 (Special Issue).Google Scholar
  29. Orteza y Miranda, E. (1996) ‘On Book Reviewing’, Journal of Educational Thought, XXX, 2, 191–202.Google Scholar
  30. Roper, D. (1978) Reviewing before the Edinburgh: 1788–1802 (London: Methuen).Google Scholar
  31. Salager-Meyer, F. and Alcaraz Ariza, M. A. (2004) ‘Negative Appraisals in Academic Book Reviews. A Cross-Linguistic Approach’, in C. N. Candlin and M. Gotti (eds) Intercultural Aspects of Specialized Communication (Bern: Peter Lang), 149–72.Google Scholar
  32. Simpson, P. (1993) Language, Ideology and Point of View (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stubbs, M. (1996) Text and Corpus Analysis (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  34. Swales, J. (1990) Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  35. Swales, J. (2004) Research Genres: Explorations and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Swales, J., Ahmad, U. K., Chang, Y.-Y., Chavez, D., Dressen, D. F. and Seymour, R. (1998) ‘Consider This: The Role of Imperatives in Scholarly Writing’, Applied Linguistics, XIX, 1, 97–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thompson, G. and Ye, Y. (1991) ‘Evaluation of the Reporting Verbs Used in Academic Papers’, Applied Linguistics, XII, 4, 365–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson, G. and Hunston, S. (2000) ‘Evaluation: An Introduction’ in S. Hunston and G. Thompson (eds) Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction ofDiscourse (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 3–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ken Hyland and Giuliana Diani 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Hyland
  • Giuliana Diani

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations