Advertisement

Social Dimension of Employment Policy in India: Indian Debate on Employment Reservation in the Private Sector

  • Hiroshi Sato
Chapter
  • 134 Downloads
Part of the IDE-JETRO Series book series (IDE)

Abstract

Reservation of public sector employment for certain classes of discriminated or segregated sections of the people proportional to their share of the population has been one of the major tools of affirmative action (henceforth ‘AA’) in independent India. It has also formed the very backbone of the national employment policy for the underprivileged. This has been one of the varied instruments of the state to provide protection for employment. Regulations in favour of small-scale industries that bar competitive entry by large-scale enterprises constitute another policy for employment protection, although these have been largely dismantled under economic liberalization measures since the 19905.1 However, the direct AA measures to ensure employment for the underprivileged are more resistant to economic reform initiatives.2 AA has largely survived the dominant discourse of market-friendly reforms since the 1990s, though more extensive application is expected to quickly invite resistance, as in the recent case where 27 per cent of the seats at institutions of higher education were reserved for the ‘Other Backward Classes’ (OBC) applicants.3 However, one point to be noted is that all these measures taken by the Indian government have been confined to public institutions, either under central or state control.4 The topic discussed here differs from the earlier topics in India’s experiences with AA, in that the proposed AA is intended to apply to the private sector.5 A brief account of the background of the new proposal would be helpful.

Keywords

Private Sector Affirmative Action Economic Liberalization Schedule Caste Reservation Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambedkar, B.R. (1947) States and Minorities: What are their Rights and how to Secure them in the Constitution of Free India. Bombay: Thacker.Google Scholar
  2. Aryama (2005) ‘Public-Private Divide and Affirmative Action in India’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 89–100.Google Scholar
  3. Bajaj, Rahul (2005) ‘Reservation: Devoid of Merit’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 248–50.Google Scholar
  4. Drèze, Jean and Amartya Sen (2002) India Development and Participation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fugazza, Marco (2003) ‘Racial Discrimination: Theories, Facts and Policy’. International Labour Review 142(4): 508–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Galanter, Marc (1984) Competing Equalities: Law and Backward Classes in India. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Government of India (Ministry of Finance) (2005) Economic Survey 2004–05. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  8. Government of India (Planning Commission) (2001) Report of the Task Force on Employment. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  9. Government of Madhya Pradesh (2002a) The Bhopal Declaration, Charting a New Course for Dalits for the 21st Century. Bhopal.Google Scholar
  10. Government of Madhya Pradesh (2002b) The Bhopal Document, Charting a New Course for Dalits for the 21st Century. Bhopal.Google Scholar
  11. Guru, Gopal (2005) ‘Corporate Classes and its “Veil of Ignorance”’. Seminar 549 (May): 36–9.Google Scholar
  12. Hodges-Aeberhard, J. (1999) ‘Affirmative Action in Employment: Recent Court Approaches to a Different Concept’. International Labour Review 138(3): 247–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jhunjhunwala, Satish Kumar (2005) ‘Job Reservation in Private Sector’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 242–7.Google Scholar
  14. Kumar, Vivek (2005) ‘Understanding the Politics of Reservation. A Perspective from Below’. EPW 26 February: 803–6.Google Scholar
  15. Louis, Prakash (2005) ‘Affirmative Action in Private Sector: Need for a National Debate’. In Sukhadeo Throat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 140–56.Google Scholar
  16. Mehta, P. B. (2005a) ‘New Agenda for the Dalits’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 267–73.Google Scholar
  17. Mehta, P. B. (2005b) ‘Affirmation without Reservation’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 207–18.Google Scholar
  18. Mitra, Amit (2005) ‘Is Reservation in Private Sector Warranted?’ In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 239–41.Google Scholar
  19. Mohanty, Mritiunjoy (2006) ‘Social Inequality, Labour Market Dynamics and Reservation’. EPW (2 September): 3777–89.Google Scholar
  20. Omvedt, Gail (2005) ‘Reservation in the Private and the Corporate Sector’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 129–39.Google Scholar
  21. Papola, T. S. (2005) ‘Social Exclusion and Discrimination in Hiring Practices: the Case of Indian Private Industry’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 101–8.Google Scholar
  22. Parthasarathy, D. (2005) ‘Reservations, Towards a Larger Perspective’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 193–202.Google Scholar
  23. Sachar, Rajindar (2005) ‘Is Reservation in Private Sector Warranted?’ In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 157–9.Google Scholar
  24. Sen, Amartya (2005) The Argumentative Indians: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  25. Shah, Ghanshyam (2005) ‘Foreword’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. ix–xii.Google Scholar
  26. Singh, V. P. (1996) ‘Affirmative Action in India’. Mainstream 18 May: 7–13.Google Scholar
  27. Sundaram, K. and Suresh D. Tendulkar (2003) ‘Poverty among Social and Economic Groups in India in the 1990s’. EPW 13 December: 5263–76.Google Scholar
  28. Thimmaiah, G. (2005) ‘Implications of Reservation in Private Sector’. EPW 19 February: 745–50.Google Scholar
  29. Thorat, Sukhadeo (2005) ‘Caste System and Economic Discrimination: Lessons from Theories’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 66–88.Google Scholar
  30. Thorat, Sukhadeo, Aryama and Prashant Negi (eds) (2005) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Weisskopf, Thomas E. (2004) Affirmative Action in the United States and India. A Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Weisskopf, Thomas E. (2005) ‘Globalization and Affirmative Action’. In Sukhadeo Thorat et al. (eds) Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. New Delhi: Institute of Dalit Studies and Rawat Publications, pp. 263–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Developing Economies (IDE), JETRO 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Sato

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations