• William Grassie


What is religion? What is spirituality? Both are involved in family and society, killing and eating, cooperating and competing, education and labor, values and norms, hierarchies and anarchies. Religions and spiritualities touch many intimate parts of our lives—at birth, during adolescence, in marriage, and at death, as well as at other transformative moments in the lives of individuals and societies.


Religious Tradition Ultimate Reality Truth Claim Scientific Worldview Symbolic Realism 
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  1. 2.
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  2. Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2006);Google Scholar
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  9. 3.
    Nonreductive functionalism is a term of art in the philosophy of mind. David Chalmers popularized the concept in his 1996 book The Conscious Mind. He argues that “consciousness can only be understood within a non-reductionist science of the mind.” Consciousness is “supervenient” on physical states of the brain. Chalmers argues for “property dualism,” that is, mental states cannot be fully reduced to and understood through biochemical, neuron-level analyses of the brain, contrary to the ambitions of physicalist reductionists such as John Searle and Daniel Dennett. See David J. Chalmer, The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). My use of the term is related but greatly expanded beyond the domain of the cognitive sciences and the philosophy of mind.Google Scholar
  10. 4.
    Edwin A. Abbott, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions (Project Gutenberg, 1884).Google Scholar
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    Alfred North Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (New York: Free Press, [1925] 1967), 51.Google Scholar

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© William Grassie 2010

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  • William Grassie

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