Administration and Legislation



Decisions about who should be admitted to a university were never in the hands of the students, despite the fact that the students were the ones most affected by the change to their environment. The students at the Pennsylvania State College showed their view of administrative and government control over them in their yearbook, La Vie, in 1893 with the illustration shown above.1 The handle on the press reads discipline, and the officials were grinding the students into shape with it. There are no women visible in the illustration even though they had been part of the student body for more than two decades. This was probably out of a sense of delicacy but also because the male students were far more likely to be in need of discipline than the women. In no case was the admission of women to a university the direct result of agitation on the part of the male students. On many campuses the idea was welcomed with little to no difficulty from the men, but in some cases there was loud disapproval of the decision of their administrators. Students were well aware of the debates about women’s ability to undertake higher education, and there were mixed reactions to the prospect of having them do so in mixed classrooms.2


High Education Male Student Woman Student Land Grant College Female Graduate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    PSU, “The College Government,” La Vie ‘93 published by the Junior Class (State College, PA: Published by the University, 1893), 27Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    D. I. Mackay, Geographical Mobility and the Brain Drain: A Case Study of Aberdeen University Graduates, 1860–1960 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1969), 35.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Jane Rendall, “The Citizenship of Women and the Reform Act of 1867,” in Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Pace, Gender and the Preform Act of 1867, ed. Catherine Hall, Keith McClelland, and Jane Rendall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 122.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Sarah J. Smith, “Retaking the Register: Women’s Higher Education in Glasgow and Beyond, c. 1796–1845,” Gender & History 12, 2 (2000), 310–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. M.J. Tuke, A History of Bedford College for Women, 1849–1937 (London: Oxford University Press, 1939)Google Scholar
  6. Elaine Kaye, A History of Queen’s College, London 1848–1972 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1972).Google Scholar
  7. 23.
    Lindy Moore, Bajanellas and Semilinas: Aberdeen University and the Education of Women (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1991), 4.Google Scholar
  8. 25.
    Margaret Todd, The Life of Sophia Jex-Blake (London: Macmillan and Co., 1918), 413.Google Scholar
  9. 29.
    Suzanne Le-May Sheffield, Women and Science: Social Impact and Interaction (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2006), 119.Google Scholar
  10. 33.
    Michael Bezilla, Penn State: An Illustrated History (University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1985), 1–2.Google Scholar
  11. 34.
    Merle Curti, The Social Ideals of American Educators (Paterson, NJ: Pageant Books, 1959), 3.Google Scholar
  12. 37.
    George N. Rainsford, Congress and Higher Education in the Nineteenth Century (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1972), 96.Google Scholar
  13. 54.
    H. B. Charlton, Portrait of a University, 1851–1951: To Commemorate the Centenary of Manchester University (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1951), 138.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Christine D. Myers 2010

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations