Up to now, I have only shown that current survey methodology cannot extract intelligible hard choices when citizens confront policymaking situations. Whether this problem lies within polls themselves or is, instead, a personal shortcoming is currently unclear. Conceivably, improved survey instruments could discover ample personal capacity. Uncounted physical properties, for example, the speed of light, were once judged unmeasurable, and perhaps a parallel exists for ascertaining citizen hard choices. If one blames flawed instruments, then mere questionnaire tinkering is the assignment. Upgraded education or other corrective actions are unnecessary. Alternatively, no amount of technical enhancement can uncover the nonexistent; respondents will always be flustered when wrestling with policy complexities.
KeywordsPublic Opinion Direct Democracy Political Knowledge Civic Virtue Poll Question
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