Skip to main content

Decentering the White and Male Standpoints in Race and Ethnicity Courses

  • Chapter

Part of the Comparative Feminist Studies Series book series (CFS)

Abstract

Universities have increasingly become a site of contestation for issues regarding race, class, and gender. As more universities add a “diversity requirement” to their list of courses necessary for degree articulation, the politics surrounding these courses intensifies. Although it seems generally positive that universities offer more courses about racial and ethnic inequality, the way that many of these courses are organized is extremely problematic. The epistemological standpoint of the course is particularly important. From whose knowledge base is this course organized? I have found that many courses are organized from a white and male knowledge base. “Ethnic studies is grounded in an epistemological assumption of multiple standpoints that coalesce around socially constructed racial categories … and stand in opposition to whiteness.”1 Chun, Christopher, and Gumport argue for multiple perspectives in courses on racial inequality, particularly those that challenge white and male hegemonic notions of race and reality. Unfortunately, many courses do not challenge reified notions of race and reality, and some actually reinforce them.

Keywords

  • White Student
  • Racial Identity
  • African American Student
  • White People
  • Racial Inequality

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1057/9780230107250_11
  • Chapter length: 29 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-0-230-10725-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   74.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Works Cited

  • Aguirre, Adalberto and Jonathan Turner. American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination, Third Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, Paula Gunn. “Who is Your Mother? Red Roots of White Feminism.” Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings. Ed. Charles Lemert. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, Theodore. The Invention of the White Race. New York: Verso, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belenky, Mary F., Blythe M. Clinchy, Nancy R. Goldberger, Jill M. Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chun, Marc, Susan Christopher, and Patricia Gumport. “Multiculturalism and the Academic Organization of Knowledge.” Multicultural Curriculum: New Directions for Social Theory, Practice, and Policy. Eds. Ram Mahalingam and Cameron McCarthy. New York: Routledge, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought. New York: Routledge, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crenshaw, Kimberlé. “Color-blind Dreams and Racial Nightmares: Reconfiguring Racism in the Post Civil Rights Era.” Birth of a Nation ‘hood: Gaze Script and Spectacle in the O.J. Simpson Case. Eds. Toni Morrison and Claudia Brodsky La-cour. New York: Pantheon, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dill, Bonnie Thornton. “The Dialectics of Black Womanhood.” Feminism and Methodology. Ed. Sandra Harding. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dworkin, Anthony and Rosalind Dworkin. The Minority Report: An Introduction to Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Relations, 3rd Ed. Fort Worth, IN: Harcourt Brace and Co., 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fine, Michelle. “Witnessing Whiteness.” Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society. Eds. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda Powell, and L. Mun Wong. New York: Routledge, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenberg, Ruth. The Social Construction of Whiteness: White Women, Race Matters. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilligan, Carol. In A Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giroux, Henry. Teachers as Intellectuals. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • —— “Living Dangerously: Identity Politics and the New Cultural Racism.” Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. Eds. Henry A. Giroux and Peter McLaren. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harding, Sandra. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women’s Lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hochschild, Arlie. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • hooks, bell. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • —— Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, Margaret and Kimberly Nettles. “What About the White Women? Racial Politics in a Women’s Studies Classroom.” Teaching Sociology 27.4 (1999 October): 385–97.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jewell, K. Sue. From Mammy to Miss America and Beyond: Cultural Images and the Shaping of U.S. Social Policy. New York: Routledge, 1993.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King, Deborah. “Multiple Jeopardy Multiple Consciousness: The Context of a Black Feminist Ideology.” Signs 14.1 (1988 Autumn): 42–72.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kitano, Harry. Race Relations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaDuke, Winona. All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life. Cambridge, Mass.: South End Press, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • La Operación. Director, Producer, Ana María García. Latin American Film Project and Skylight Pictures. New York: Cinema Guild, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahoney, Martha. “The Social Construction of Whiteness.” Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror. Eds. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marger, Martin. Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives. 5th Ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, Theresa. “Toward a Chicana Feminist Epistemological Standpoint.” Race, Gender, and Class 3.3 (1996): 107–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, Peggy. “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies.” Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror. Eds. Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLaren, Peter, Zeus Leonardo, and Ricky Lee Allen. “Epistemologies of Whiteness: Transgressing and Transforming Pedagogical Knowledge.” Multicultural Curriculum: New Directions for Social Theory, Practice, and Policy. Eds. Ram Mahalingam and Cameron McCarthy. New York: Routledge, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “Introduction: Cartographies of Struggle, Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism.” Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Eds. Chandra Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres. Blooming-ton: Indiana University Press, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  • —— “On Race and Voice: Challenges for Liberal Education in the 1990s.” Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. Eds. Henry A. Giroux and Peter McLaren. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • —— “Dangerous Territories: Territorial Power and Education.” Dangerous Territories: Struggles over Difference and Equality in Education. Eds. Leslie Roman and Linda Eyre. New York: Routledge, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore, Robert B. “Racist Stereotyping in the English Language.” Racism and Sexism: An Integrated Study. Ed. Paula S. Rothenberg. New York: St. Martins Press, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage Press, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parrillo, Vincent. Strangers to These Shores: Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States, 6th Ed. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pérez, Emma. “Speaking from the Margin: Uninvited Discourse on Sexuality and Power.” Building With Our Hands: New Directions in Chicana Studies. Eds. Adela de la Torre and Beatríz Pesquera. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Revilla, Linda. “Filipino American Identity: Transcending the Crisis.” Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. Ed. Maria P. P. Root. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roediger, David. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History. New York: Verso, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roman, Linda. “White is a Color! White Defensiveness, Postmodernism, and Anti-racist Pedagogy.” Race, Identity, and Representation in Education. Eds. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow. New York: Routledge, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Root, Maria P. P. “A Bill of Rights for Racially Mixed People.” The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier. Ed. Maria P. P. Root. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1996.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenberg, Pearl M. “Underground Discourses: Exploring Whiteness in Teacher Education.” Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society. Eds. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda Powell, and L. Mun Wong. New York: Routledge, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaefer, Richard T Racial and Ethnic Groups. 8th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sleeter, Christine. “How White Teachers Construct Race.” Race, Identity, and Representation in Education. Eds. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow. New York: Routledge, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wildman, Stephanie. White Privilege. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, Dorothy. The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • —— “Women’s Perspective as a Radical Critique of Sociology.” Feminism and Methodology. Ed. Sandra Harding. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Copyright information

© 2002 Amie Macdonald and Susan Sánchez-Casal

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Hunter, M. (2002). Decentering the White and Male Standpoints in Race and Ethnicity Courses. In: Macdonald, A.A., Sánchez-Casal, S. (eds) Twenty-First-Century Feminist Classrooms. Comparative Feminist Studies Series. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230107250_11

Download citation