Advertisement

Empowering Education: Freire, Cynicism, and a Pedagogy of Action

  • Richard Van Heertum
Chapter
Part of the Marxism and Education book series (MAED)

Abstract

If asked to describe Freire’s work, some might invoke dialogue, praxis oppression, or possibly conscienization partly because Freire recognized that hope was at the very essence of human existence, the thing that kept the downtrodden waking up in the morning, the oppressed working, and the revolutionaries fighting against seemingly impossible odds. Indeed, hope may be as dangerous as knowledge to the power elites. What Freire recognized and struggled for his whole life was the belief that knowledge and hope could be brought together in a project of individual and collective emancipation from the sources of oppression and exploitation and toward a more just and equitable world.

Keywords

Civic Engagement Civic Education Public Intellectual Kaiser Family Foundation Standpoint Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adorno, T.W., and Horkheimer, M. (2002). Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  2. Apple, M. (2001). Educating the Right Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality. New York: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  3. Arnett, J.J. (2000). High hopes in a grim world. Emerging adults’ views of their futures and “Generation X”. Touth & Society, 31(3), 267–286.Google Scholar
  4. Aronowitz, S. (2001). The Knowledge Factory: Dismantling the Corporate University and Creating True Higher Learning. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (1999). In Search of Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bewes, T. (1997). Cynicism and Postmodernity. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  7. Blackhurst, A.E., and Foster, J. (2003). College students and citizenship: A comparison of civic attitudes and involvement in 1996 and 2000. NASPA Journal, 40(3), 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloch, E. (1986). The Principles of Hope. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Blumenfeld, P., Krajcik, J., Marx, R., and Soloway, E. (1994). Lessons learned: How collaboration helped middle grade science teachers learn project-based instruction. Elementary School Journal, 94(5), 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boal, A. (1985). Theatre of the Oppressed. New York: Theatre Communications Group.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (1998, March). L’essence du neoliberalisme. Le Monde Diplomatique.Google Scholar
  12. Bowles, S., and Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in Capitalist America: Educational Reform and Contradictions of Economic Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Caldwell, W.W. (2006). Cynicism and the Evolution of the American Dream (first edition). Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Cappella, J.N. (1997). Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Castells, M. (1996). Volume 1: The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Chaloupka, W. (1999). Everybody Knows: Cynicism in America. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  17. Corner, J., and Pels, D. (2003). Media and the Restyling of Politics: Consumerism, Celebrity and Cynicism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Cutler, I. (2005). Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.Google Scholar
  19. Darder, A. (2002). Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love. Cambridge, MA: West view Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dean, J. (2004). Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush. New York: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  21. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  22. Eaker-Rich, D., and Van Galen, J. (1996). Caring in an Unjust World. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  23. Frank, T. (2004). What’s the matter with Kansas! New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  24. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Freire, P. (1973). Education as the Practice of Freedom: Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  26. Freire, P. (1998a). Pedagogy of Freedom. Lanham,MD: Rowman & LittleField Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Freire, P. (1998 b). Politics and Education. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Giroux, H. (1995). Teachers as public intellectuals. In A.C. Ornstein (ed.). Teaching: Theory into Practice (p. 105). Boston: Allyn Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Freire, P. (2003). Public Spaces, Private Lives: Democracy beyond 9/11. Lanham, MY: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Freire, P. (2004). The Terror of Neoliberalism: Authoritarianism & the Eclipse of Democracy. London: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Gokifarb, J.C. (1991). The Cynical Society: The Culture of Politics and the Politics of Culture in American Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Goldman, R. (1996). Sign Wars: The Cluttered Landscape of Advertising. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Greene, M. (1986). In search of a critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 56(4), 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Group, NL. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review-, 66(1), 60–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harding, S. (2004). The Feminist Standpoint Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies. New York: Rout ledge.Google Scholar
  36. Hardt, M., and Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  37. hooks, b. (1994). Teachingto Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Kellner, D. (2001). Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Kellner, D. (2002). Technological revolution, multiple literacies, and the restructuring of education In I. Snyder (ed.). Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age (p. 18). New York: Outledge.Google Scholar
  40. Kellner, D. (2005). Media Spectacle and the Crisis of Democracy: Terrorism, War, and Election Battles New York: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Kozol, J. (2005). The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  42. Langstraat, L. (2002). The point is there is no point: Miasmic cynicism and cultural studies composition. JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory, 22(2), 293–325.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, L. (1997). Civic Literacy, Service Learning, and Community Renewal (No. EDOJC9704). California: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. Luke, C. (1997). Technological Literacy. Melbourne: National Language and Literacy Institute: Adult Literacy Network.Google Scholar
  45. Luke, C. (2000). Cyber-schooling and technological change: Mutliliteracies for new times. In B. Cope and M. Kalantzsis (eds.). Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures (p. 3). Austrialia: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  46. Lyman, L. (2000). How Do Tou Know Tou Care? New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  47. Mann, S.E., and Patrick, J.J.E. (2000). Education for Civic Engagement in Democracy: Service Learning and Other Promising Practices. Indiana: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED); Washington, DC: Corporation for National Service.Google Scholar
  48. Marcuse, H. (1964). One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  49. Marcuse, H. (1966). Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Marcuse, H. (1969). An Essay on Liberation. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  51. Marcuse, H. (1972). Counterrevolution and Revolt. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Masterman, L. (1990). Teaching the Media. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. McLaren, P. (1999). Schooling as a Ritual Performance: Toward a Political Economy of Educational Symbols and Gestures. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  54. McLaren, P. (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Ereire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  55. Miles, P.G. (1997) Generation X: A Social Movement toward Cynicism. Master’s thesis, University of Nevada, DAI 36–01:8.Google Scholar
  56. Moore, M.P. (1996). From a government of the people, to a people of the government: Irony as rhetorical strategy in the presidential campaigns. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 82(1), 22–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muller, C. (2001). The role of caring in the teacher-student relationship for at-risk students. SociologicalInquiry, 71(2), 241–255.Google Scholar
  58. Noddings, N. (2003). Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  59. Oakes, J. (1986). Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Online News Audience Larger, More Diverse: News Audience Increasingly Politicized. (2004). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  61. Orfield, G., and Yun, J. (1999). Resegregation in American Schools: The Civil Rights Project. Harvard University.Google Scholar
  62. Papastephanou, M. (2004). Educational critique, critical thinking and the critical philosophical traditions. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 38(3), 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parcel, T., and Dufer, M. (2001). Capital at home and at school: Effects on child social development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 32–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pinar, W. (2001). The researcher as bricoleur: The teacher as public intellectual. Qualitative Inquiry, 7(6), 696–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Posner, R. (2001). Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Rideout, V., Roberts, D., and Foehr, U. (2005). Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8 to 28 Tear-Olds. Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
  67. Saenz, V., Hurtado, S., Astin, A., Vogelgesang, L., and Sax, L. (2004). Trends in Political Attitudes and Voting Behavior among College Freshmen and Early Career College Graduates: What Issues Could Drive this Election? Los Angeles: CA.Google Scholar
  68. Schiller, F. (1983). On the Aesthetic Education of Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Schultz, B. (2008). Spectacular Things Happen Along the Way: Lessons from an Urban Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  70. Shapiro, S. (1998). Pedagogy and the Politics of the Body: A Critical Praxis. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Sloterdijk, P. (1987). Critique of Cynical Reason. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  72. Thomas, J. (2000). A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning. Reported completed for The Autodesk Foundation, March 2000.Google Scholar
  73. Tolo, K. (1999). The Civic Education of American Youth: From State Policies to School District Practices. University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  74. Torres, C.A. (1998). Democracy, Education andMulticulturalism: Dilemmas of Citizenship in a Global World. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  75. Torres, C.A. (2005). The NCLB: A brainchild of neoliberalism and American politics. New Politics, X(2), 38.Google Scholar
  76. Torres, CA., and Morrow, R. (1995). Social Theory and Education: A Critique of Theories of Social and Cultural Reproduction. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  77. Torres, CA., and Morrow, R. (2002). Reading Ere ire & Habermas: Critical Pedagogy and Transformative Social Change. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  78. Valencia, R. (1997). The Evolution of Deficit Thinking: Educational Thought and Practice. Washington, DC: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  79. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive Schooling: US-Mexican Touth and Political Caring. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  80. Van Heertum, R. (2005). How objective is objectivity? A critique of current trends in educational research. Interactions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 1(2). Accessed on June 12, 2008 at repositories. cdlib. org/gseis/inter actions/vol l/iss2/art 5.Google Scholar
  81. Van Heertum, R. (2008). The Fate of Democracy in a Cynical Age: Education, Media and the Evolving Public Sphere. Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  82. Van Heertum, R., and Share, J. (2006). Connecting power, voice and critique: A new direction for multiple literacy education. McGill Journal of Education, 41(3), 249–266.Google Scholar
  83. Willis, P. (1981). Learning to Labor. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Yalof, D., and Kautrich, K. (2005). The Future of the First Amendment. . Muncia, IN: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sheila Macrine, Peter McLaren, and Dave Hill 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Van Heertum

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations