The Incredible Indonesian Journey: Aspiring beyond the Ineffective Participatory State



On May 20, 1998, Suharto resigned from office after 32 years in office, leaving his vice president, BJ Habibie, to govern the country. Facing demonstrations and without a strong following from the military, Habibie initiated a process of political liberalization to accommodate the demand for reform. Islamists, in particular, used this newfound political openness to mobilize to achieve their politico-religious goals through newly available channels. They established political parties, civil society organizations, media publications, and umbrella organizations to coordinate activities among dozens of like-minded groups.


Political Participation Security Force Asian Financial Crisis Muslim World Religious Minority 
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© Julie Chernov Hwang 2009

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