Advertisement

Brest-Litovsk as a Site of Historical Disorientation

  • Dina Gusejnova
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter identifies historical disorientation as an aspect of liberal political thought in the decades following the Second World War. Using Isaiah Berlin’s intellectual biography as a basis, Gusejnova examines his disenchantment with the ideas of Immanuel Kant alongside his alienation from the more recent historical experience of the Eastern European Jews. Berlin argued that modern liberalism needed a ‘negative’ conceptualisation, which he compared to a citadel into which the subject could retreat. Pointing to a more geographically specific knowledge of citadels in Eastern Europe, Gusejnova suggests dating the emergence of this way of thinking to the Peace of Brest-Litovsk and the citadel of Brest. While continental intellectual historians like Hans Saner and Reinhart Koselleck had addressed the subject of unjust peace treaties, it was Berlin’s and later John Rawls’s estranged attitude towards recent history that prevailed as the more dominant view in Cold War political thought.

Keywords

Isaiah Berlin Reinhart Koselleck Realism Cold War liberalism Negative liberty Liberalism Jewish history Zionism Brest-Litovsk First World War Transnational history of war Subaltern Pale of Settlement Recognition Non-recognition Citadel Negative citizenship Citizenship and exclusion 

References

Primary Sources

  1. Adorno, Theodor W. and Max Horkheimer, Dialektik der Aufklärung (New York: Social Studies Association, 1944).Google Scholar
  2. Anon, Nachlese einiger allgemein interessanter Züge zur Karakteristik des in diesem Jahre in Riga in Liefland gehaltenen patriotischen Festeä, in Morgenblatt für gebildete Leser, 290 and 291 (4 and 5 December 1810), 1157–1158 and 1163, respectively.Google Scholar
  3. Arendt, Hannah, We Refugees, in Menorah Journal, 31: 1 (1943), 69–77.Google Scholar
  4. Arendt, Hannah, The Jew as Pariah: A Hidden Tradition, in Jewish Social Studies, 6: 2 (Apr, 1944), 99–122.Google Scholar
  5. Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Schocken, 1951).Google Scholar
  6. Berlin, Isaiah, The Bent Twig. On The Rise of Nationalism, in idem, Crooked Paths, 253–279, 257.Google Scholar
  7. Berlin, Isaiah, Two Concepts of Liberty, in idem, Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), 118–172, 135–136.Google Scholar
  8. Berlin, Isaiah, Interview with Steven Lukes, in Salmagundi, 120 (1998), 52–134, 55.Google Scholar
  9. Berlin, Isaiah, On the Jews of Russia and the Triumph of Zionism, in Jewish Quarterly, 45: 1 (1998).Google Scholar
  10. Berlin, Isaiah, Two Concepts of Liberty, 19. First corrected draft. http://berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk/published_works/tcl/, accessed 25 July 2015.
  11. Berlin, Isaiah, Two Concepts of Liberty, Original dictation, 15. http://berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk/published_works/tcl/, accessed 25 July 2016.
  12. Berlin, Isaiah, Benjamin Disraeli, Karl Marx, and the Search for Identity, in Transactions & Miscellanies (Jewish Historical Society of England), 22 (1968–1969), 1–20.Google Scholar
  13. Brockhaus & Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, voliv, entry on ‘Brest-Litovsk’ (St. Petersburg: I.A. Efron, 1894).Google Scholar
  14. Cassirer, Ernst, The Myth of the State (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  15. Dubnow, Simon, History of the Jews, 3 vols. (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2017–2018).Google Scholar
  16. In Defense of National Interest (New York: Knopf, 1951).Google Scholar
  17. Kh. Zonenberg, Istoria goroda Brest-Litovska. 1016–1907, etc. [History of the city of Brest-Litovsk] (Brest-Litovsk: Tipografia Kobrinca, 1908).Google Scholar
  18. Menar, and Karl von Löwis of, Riga. Kurzer geschichtlicher Führer (Riga: Jonck & Poliewsky, 1918).Google Scholar
  19. Morgenthau, Hans, Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace Scientific Man and Power Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  20. Political Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  21. Rawls, John, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  22. Rubakin, Nikolai, Rossia v tsifrakh. Strana. Narod. Soslovia. Klassy [Russia in numbers. Land. People. Estates. Classes] (St. Petersburg: Izdanie ‘Vestnikaznaniya’’, 1912).Google Scholar
  23. Soloveitchik, Rabbi Joseph Baer, Halakhic Man, transl. Lawrence Kaplan (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1983).Google Scholar
  24. Solowieczyk, Josef, Das reine Denken und die Seinskonstituierung bei Hermann Cohen (Berlin: Reuther & Reichard, 1932).Google Scholar
  25. Wheeler Bennett, John, Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace (London: Macmillan, 1938).Google Scholar
  26. Wheeler-Bennett, John, Special Relationships: America in Peace and War (London: Macmillan, 1975).Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

    Articles and Book Chapters

    1. Anderson, Amanda, The Case of Cold War Liberalism, in New Literary History, 42: 2 (Spring 2011), 209–229.Google Scholar
    2. Bayly, C.A. Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    3. Bourke, Richard, Nationalism, Balkanization and Democracy, in Schleifspuren: Lesarten des 18. Jahrhunderts, eds. Anke Fischer-Kattner et al. (Munich: Dreesbach Verlag, 2011), 77–89.Google Scholar
    4. Chernev, Borislav, ‘Ukrainization and Its Contradictions in the Context of the Brest-Litovsk System’‚ in The Empire and Nationalism at War‚ eds. Eric Lohr‚ Vera Tolz‚ Alexander Semyonov and Mark von Hagen, (Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 2014), 163–189.Google Scholar
    5. Geuss, Raymond, Das Unbehagen am Liberalismus, in Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 4 (2001), 499–516.Google Scholar
    6. Gossman, Lionel, Cold War Liberal?’, in The Journal of Modern History, 74: 3 (September 2002), 538–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    7. Hacohen, Malachi Haim, ”The Strange Fact That the State of Israel Exists”: The Cold War Liberals Between Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism, in Jewish Social Studies, 15: 2 (Winter 2009), 37–81.Google Scholar
    8. Hont, Istvan, The Permanent Crisis of a Divided Mankind: ‘Nation-State’ and ‘Nationalism’ in Historical Perspective’, in idem, Jealousy of Trade (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005), 447–529.Google Scholar
    9. Humphrey, Caroline, Cosmopolitanism and kosmopolitizm in the political life of Soviet citizens, in Focaal—European Journal of Anthropology 44 (2004), 138–152.Google Scholar
    10. Koselleck, Reinhart, series editor’s introduction to Brest-Litovsk, Winfried Baumgart und Konrad Repgen (eds.), Reinhart Koselleck und Rudolf Vierhaus (series eds.), Historische Texte Neuzeit 6. Ausw. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1969), 7–8, 7.Google Scholar
    11. Neither History nor Practice, in European review, 11: 3 (2003), 281–292.Google Scholar
    12. Nelson, Eric, Liberty: One concept too many? in Political Theory, 33: 1 (2005), 58–78; Quentin Skinner, A Third Concept of Liberty, in Proceedings of the British Academy 111 (2002), 237–268.Google Scholar
    13. Nolte, Hans-Heinrich, Internal Peripheries: From Andalucia to Tatarstan, in Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 18: 2 (Spring, 1995), 261–280.Google Scholar
    14. Skinner, Quentin, A Third Concept of Liberty, in Proceedings of the British Academy 111 (2002), 237–268.Google Scholar
    15. Sznaider, Natan, Hannah Arendt: Jew and Cosmopolitan, in Socio: La Nouvvelle Revue des Sciences Sociales, 4 (2015), 197–221.Google Scholar

Books

  1. Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Books, 1994).Google Scholar
  2. Berlin, Isaiah, The Soviet Mind: Russian Culture Under Communism, Henry Hardy (ed.) (Washington: Brookings Institution, 2004).Google Scholar
  3. Berlin, Isaiah, Three Critics of the Enlightenment. Vico, Hamann, Herder, Henry Hardy (ed.) (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  4. Billington, James H., The Icon and the Axe: An Interpretive History of Russian Culture (New York: Knopf, 1966).Google Scholar
  5. Cherniss, Joshua L., A Mind and Its time: The Development of Isaiah Berlin’s Political Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Etkind, Alexander, Internal Colonization: Russia’s Imperial Experience (Cambridge: Polity, 2011).Google Scholar
  7. Fawcett, Edmund, Liberalism: The Life of an Idea (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014).Google Scholar
  8. Hull, Isabel, A Scrap of Paper: Breaking and Making International Law during the Great War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014).Google Scholar
  9. Mendelssohn, E., Class Struggle in the Pale: The Formative Years of the Jewish Workers’ Movement in Tsarist Russia (London: Cambridge University Press, 1970). Nationalstaates (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1911).Google Scholar
  10. Merridale, Catherine, Red Fortress: The Secret Heart of Russia’s History (London: Penguin, 2014).Google Scholar
  11. Mogilner, Marina, Homo Imperii. A History of Physical Anthropology in Russia (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nussbaum, Martha, Frontiers of Justice. Disability, Nationality, Species Membership (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 2007).Google Scholar
  13. Reynolds, David, One World Divisible: A Global History since 1945 (New York: Norton, 2001).Google Scholar
  14. Sands, Philippe, East West Street: On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity (London: Weidenfeld, 2016).Google Scholar
  15. Schwartz, Dov, Religion or Halakha. The Philosophy of Rabbi B. Soloveitchik, transl. Batya Stein (Leiden: Brill, 2007).Google Scholar
  16. Sznaider, Natan, Jewish Memory and the Cosmopolitan Order (Cambridge: Polity, 2011).Google Scholar
  17. Tooze, Adam, The Deluge. The Great War and the Remaking of Global Order, 1916–1931 (London: Penguin, 2015).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations