Advertisement

Transnational and Cosmopolitan Aspects of Eighteenth-Century European Wars

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an outline of the transnational dimensions of wars involving eighteenth-century Europeans, and explores the ways in which we can see the armed struggles of the time as embodying cosmopolitan features. The chapter first considers the ends for which wars were fought, or at least the ways in which they were legitimized by governments. It then turns to the means. Four areas are examined: first, the alliance systems that brought different governments and armed forces into co-operation; second, the supply and finance of armies and navies, which often relied on complex transnational networks; third, the composition of supposedly national armies; and finally the legal framework that sought to define the boundaries of acceptable behaviour in war and the values that underpinned its conduct. In this new light, the cosmopolitan dimensions of war can be uncovered, focusing on sympathy for the sufferings of others—outside one’s own local, national, or ethnic community—amongst those engaged in the fighting.

Keywords

War Alliance Transnational history of war Financial networks Sympathy and conflict Seven years’ war War of the spanish succession Transatlantic history 

References

Primary

  1. Unpublished Google Scholar
  2. Bedfordshire Record Office, Bedford, Lucas Collection, L 30/9/56/35, Letter to Lady Grey, 16 Dec. [1757].Google Scholar
  3. Boston Public Library, Letters of Hugh, Earl Percy, MS G 31.39.4.Google Scholar
  4. British Library, Leeds Papers, Egerton MS 3500, fo. 15.Google Scholar
  5. British Library, London, Hardwicke Papers, Diary of Joseph Yorke in Flanders, 1744, Add. MS 36,250, fos. 3, 6, 7, 21, 26, 39, 65.Google Scholar
  6. British Library, Journal of James Thornhill, 1711, Add. MS 34,788, fos. 47, 50.Google Scholar
  7.  British Library, Althorp Papers, Add. MS 75,571, Anna Maria Poyntz to Countess Spencer, 11 Oct. 1766.Google Scholar
  8. Cornwall Record Office, Truro, DD J 2245, Diary of Thomas Hawkins.Google Scholar
  9. Derbyshire Record Office, Matlock, Wilmot Horton of Catton Collection, D 3155 C 657.Google Scholar
  10. Historical Manuscripts Commission, Stopford Sackville MSS (2 vols., London, 1904–1910), i. 290.Google Scholar
  11. Huntington Library, San Marino, California, Loudoun Papers, LO 1607, ‘List of Recruits under the command of Herbert, Baron de Munster embarked the 4th of June near Hamburg and arrived the 27th of August at New York. 1756.’Google Scholar
  12. National Archives of Scotland, DunglassMuniments, GD 206/2/495/9 and 20, Hall to Sir John Hall of Dunglass, 5 Jan. 1759 and 11 Nov. 1762.Google Scholar
  13. National Archives of Scotland, Leven and Melville Muniments, GD 26/9/513, Leslie to Wilhelmina Leslie, Countess of Leven and Melville, 25 Dec. 1776.Google Scholar
  14. National Archives of Scotland, Edinburgh, Hamilton Dalrymple of North Berwick Muniments, GD 110/929/2 and 5, Earl of Stair to Sir Hew Dalrymple, 26 Jan., 4 Feb. 1742.Google Scholar
  15. The National Archives of the United Kingdom, Kew, Colonial Office Papers, CO 174/13, fo. 141, Murray to Lord Hillsborough, 4 Oct. 1781, CO 174/14, fo. 19, Murray to Hillsborough, 10 Dec. 1781.Google Scholar
  16. Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast, Bedford Papers, T 2915/5/34, Richard Rigby to the Duke of Bedford, 5 Sept. 1758.Google Scholar
  17. Tyne and Wear Archives, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ellison MSS, bundle A30, Henry Thomas Carr to Henry Ellison, 24 Sept. 1749.Google Scholar
  18. Published Google Scholar
  19. [Anon.,], Reasons Prov’d to be Unreasonable: or, An Answer to the Reasons against a War with France (London, 1702).Google Scholar
  20. [Anon.,], Reasons for a War; from the Imminent Danger with which Europe is Threatened, by the Exorbitant Power of the House of Bourbon. 2nd edn. (London, 1734).Google Scholar
  21. See, e.g., [Anon.,] The Conduct of the Government with regard to Peace and War, Stated (London, 1748).Google Scholar
  22. [Anon.,] The Occasional Patriot: or, An Enquiry into the Present Connections of Great Britain with the Continent (London, 1756).Google Scholar
  23. [Anon.,], The Most Christian Turk; Or, A View of the Life and Bloody reign of Lewis XIV Present King of France (London, 1690).Google Scholar
  24. Bagley, J.J. (ed.), The Great Diurnal of Nicholas Blundell of Little Crosby, Lancashire (3 vols., Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Liverpool, 1968–1972).Google Scholar
  25. British Museum, Department of Prints and Drawings, BM 8835, The Arch-Duke, 15 Nov. 1796.Google Scholar
  26. Cartwright, James (ed.). The Wentworth Papers, 1705–1739 (London, 1883), p. 260.Google Scholar
  27. Copeland, Thomas W. (ed.). The Correspondence of Edmund Burke, 10 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958–1978)Google Scholar
  28. Dalrymple, William, Travels through Spain and Portugal in 1774; With a Short Account of the Spanish Expedition against Algiers, in 1775 (London, 1777).Google Scholar
  29. Deane, John Marshall, A Journal of Marlborough’s campaigns during the War of the Spanish Succession, 1704–1711, ed. D.G. Chandler (Society for Army Historical Research, Special Publication No. 12, np., 1984).Google Scholar
  30. Edinburgh Chronicle; or, Universal Intelligencer, 14–17 Nov. 1759.Google Scholar
  31. Fitzgerald, Brian (ed.), The Correspondence of Emily, Duchess of Leinster (3 vols.) (Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1949–1957).Google Scholar
  32. Frearson, C.W. (ed.), ‘To Mr. Davenport’, being Letters of Major Richard Davenport (1719–1760) to his Brother (Society for Army Historical Research, Special Publication, no. 9, London, 1968).Google Scholar
  33. Gibson, Donald (ed.), A Parson in the Vale of White Horse: George Woodward’s Letters from East Hendred, 1753–1761 (Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1982).Google Scholar
  34. ‘J.D.’, in St James’s Chronicle; or British Evening-Post, 12–14 Sept. 1786.Google Scholar
  35. Monitor, or British Freeholder, 13 Jan. 1759.Google Scholar
  36. Owen, Hugh (ed.), Additional Letters of the Morrises of Anglesey (1735–1786) (Hon. Society of Cymmrodorion, xliix, pt. i, London, 1947).Google Scholar
  37. Oracle and Public Advertiser, 22 Sept. 1796.Google Scholar
  38. Postlethwayt, Malachy‚ Britain’s Commercial Interest Explained and Improved (2 vols., London, 1757).Google Scholar
  39. The Regulations for the Prussian Cavalry (London, 1757).Google Scholar
  40. The Family Memoirs of the Rev. William Stukeley (Surtees Society, lxxiii, Durham, 1880).Google Scholar
  41. Vattel, Emmerich de, Le droit des gens (Neuchatel, 1758).Google Scholar

Secondary

  1. Articles and book chapters Google Scholar
  2. Conway, Stephen, ‘Entrepreneurs and the Recruitment of the British Army in the War of American Independence’, in Jeff Fynn-Paul (ed.), War, Entrepreneurs, and the State in Europe and the Mediterranean, 1300–1800 (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 120–123.Google Scholar
  3. Conway, Stephen, ‘Scots, Britons, Europeans: Scottish Military Service, c.1739–1783’, Historical Research, 82 (2009), pp. 126–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Conway, Stephen, ‘The British Army, ‘Military Europe’, and the War of American Independence’, William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 67 (2010), pp. 69–100.Google Scholar
  5. Gordon M. Stewart, ‘British Students at the University of Göttingen in the Eighteenth Century’, German Life and Letters, 33 (1979–1980), 24–41.Google Scholar
  6. Black, Jeremy, Culloden and the ’45 (Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1990).Google Scholar
  7. Brumwell, Stephen, Recoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755–1763 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  8. Ceadel, Martin, The Origins of War Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730–1854 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Claydon, Tony, Europe and the Making of England, 1660–1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  10. Conway, Stephen, Britain, Ireland, and Continental Europe in the Eighteenth Century: Similarities, Connections, Identities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickson, G.M., The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public credit, 1658–1756 (London: Gregg Revivals, 1967).Google Scholar
  12. Dickson, P.G.M., Finance and Government under Maria Theresia, 1740–1780 (2 vols., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  13. Duffy, Christopher, The ’45: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Untold Story of the Jacobite Rising (London: Cassell, 2003).Google Scholar
  14. Fraser, David, Frederick the Great: King of Prussia (London: Allen Lane, 2000).Google Scholar
  15. Hargraves-Mawdsley, W.N. (ed. and trans.), Spain under the Bourbons (London: Palgrave, 1973).Google Scholar
  16. Harris, Bob, Politics and the Nation: Britain in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Helleines, Karl F., The Imperial Loans: A Study in Financial and Diplomatic History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  18. Housden, Martyn, The League of Nations and the Organization of Peace (London: Pearson Longman, 2012).Google Scholar
  19. Hubatsch, Walther, Frederick the Great of Prussia: Absolutism and Administration (London: Thames & Hudson, 1975).Google Scholar
  20. Jarrett, Mark, The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon (London: I.B. Tauris, 2013).Google Scholar
  21. Kennett, Lee, The French Armies in the Seven Years’ War: A Study in Military Organization and Administration (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  22. Knott, Sarah, Sensibility and the American Revolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).Google Scholar
  23. Miggelbrink, Joachim, ‘The End of the Scots-Dutch Brigade’, in Steve Murdoch and Andrew Mackillop (eds.), Fighting for Identity: Scottish Military Experience, c.1550–1900 (Leiden: Brill, 2002).Google Scholar
  24. Neff, Stephen C., War and the Law of Nations: A General History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schieder, Theodor, Frederick the Great, ed. and trans. Sabina Berkeley and H.M. Scott (London: Longman, 2000).Google Scholar
  26. Seaman, Kate, Un-tied Nations: the United Nations, Peacekeeping, and Global Governance (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014).Google Scholar
  27. Speck, W.A., The Butcher: The Duke of Cumberland and the Suppression of the ’45 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  28. Speelman, Patrick J., Henry Lloyd and the Military Enlightenment of Eighteenth-Century Europe (Westport, CN: Westview Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  29. van der Linden, W.H., The International Peace Movement, 1815–1874 (Amsterdam: Tilleul, 1987).Google Scholar
  30. Vick, Brian E., The Congress of Vienna: Power and Politics after Napoleon (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zamoyski, Adam, Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna (New York: Harper, 2007).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations