Skip to main content

Conclusion: Reading Between the Headlines – Demonising and Scapegoating of Youth in Transition

  • 599 Accesses

Part of the Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies book series (PSLS)

Abstract

The concluding chapter of the monograph discusses issues central to the research process of carrying out critical social research and the challenges faced when interviewing ‘primary definers’ and providing an opportunity for the ‘view from below’ to be heard. It explores four central research themes: significance and role of the media in Northern Ireland; media representations and impact of negative ideological constructions; social reaction, policy and legal responses in the ‘new’ Northern Ireland; engagement, participation and challenging the media. The chapter concludes by proposing future considerations and challenges for academic research and policy intervention demonstrating the potential institutional impact of the research.

Keywords

  • Critical Social Research
  • Social Reaction
  • Police Service Of Northern Ireland (PSNI)
  • Negative Media Representations
  • Punishment Beatings

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1057/978-1-137-60682-2_8
  • Chapter length: 25 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-137-60682-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    See: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8584603.stm (accessed on 24 March 2010).

  2. 2.

    Throughout this chapter direct quotations are presented in italics. Consistent with previous chapters, individual comments are attributed to the interviewee using the reference system outlined in the appendices. However, where a word or phrase has not been attributed, this denotes use by more than one interviewee.

  3. 3.

    The media’s position concerned the potential danger to staff and ‘risk’ to their safety. The National Union Journalists (NUJ) and Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union (BECTU) issued statements of concern. As a letter from the broadcast union BECTU stated, editors and journalists do not want to be perceived as ‘evidence gatherers for the State’, particularly given the dissident threat. See: http://www.u.tv/News/Broadcasters-warn-PSNI-over-demands-for-footage/80562d4c-57bd-4e42-8f6f-1e7c627358c9 (accessed on 18 August 2011); http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/psni-demand-for-riot-footage-could-put-journalists-at-risk-16037940.html#ixzz21Ntq8Wt2 (accessed on 18 August 2011); http://www.4rfv.co.uk/industrynews.asp?id=130785 (accessed on 19 August 2011).

  4. 4.

    One youth worker who observed a focus group stated that: ‘The young people seemed to enjoy the opportunity to have their voices heard on the issues. They are not always as forthcoming with researchers’ (e-mail correspondence, dated 11 January 2011).

  5. 5.

    See: http://www.levesoninquiry.org.uk/ (accessed on 30 March 2012).

Bibliography

  • Allan, S. (1999) News Culture, Buckingham: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ang, I. (1990a) ‘Culture and Communication’, European Journal of Communication, Volume 5, Number 2, pages 239–260.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ang, I. (1990b) Desperately Seeking the Audience, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, H. (1963) Outsider: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, New York and London: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, H. (1967) ‘Whose Side Are We On?’, Social Problems, Volume 14, Number 3, pages 234–247.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers (First Edition), Oxford: Martin Robertson.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S. (2002) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers (Third Edition), London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Corner, J. and Hawthorn, J. eds. (1993) Communication Studies: An Introductory Reader (Fourth Edition), London: Arnold Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crane, P. (1997) ‘Whose Views? Whose Interests? The Absence of Young People’s Voices in Mainstream Media Reports on Crime’, in J. Bessant and R. Hil (eds.) Youth Crime and the Media: Media Representations of and Reactions to Young People in Relation to Law and Order, Hobart, Australia: Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies, pages 93–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (1992) Power Without Responsibility: The Press and Broadcasting in Britain (Fourth Edition), London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • David, C. D. and Sutton, M. (2011) Social Research: An Introduction (Second Edition), London: SAGE Publications Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davies, S. (1997) ‘A Sight to Behold: Media and the Visualisation of Youth, Evil and Innocence’, in J. Bessant and R. Hil (eds.) Youth Crime and the Media: Media Representations of and Reactions to Young People in Relation to Law and Order, Hobart, Australia: Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies, pages 55–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, H. and Bourhill, M. (1997) ‘“Crisis”: The Demonization of Children and Young People’, in P. Scraton (ed.) Childhood in ‘Crisis’?, London: UCL Press/Routledge, pages 28–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durham, A. M., Elrod, H. P. and Kinkade, P. T. (1995) ‘Images of Crime and Justice: Murder and the “True Crime” Genre’, Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 23, Number 2, pages 143–152.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eldridge, J., Kitzinger, J. and Williams, K. (1997) The Mass Media Power in Modern Britain, London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fionda, J. (2005) Devils and Angels: Youth Policy and Crime, Oxford: Hart Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foreman, G. (2011) The Ethical Journalist: Making Responsible Decisions in the Pursuit of News, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • France, A. (2007) Understanding Youth in Late Modernity, Berkshire: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. eds. (1997) Making the Local News: Local Journalism in Context, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, C. (2010) Reporting for Journalists (Second Edition), Oxon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glover, D. (1984) The Sociology of the Mass Media, Cornwall: Causeway Press Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffin, C. (2009) ‘Representations of the Young’, in J. Roche, S. Tucker, R. Thomson and R. Flynn (eds.) Youth in Society (Second Edition), London: SAGE Publications Limited, pages 10–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gross, L. (1992) ‘Out of the Mainstream: Sexual Minorities and the Mass Media’, in E. Seiter, H. Borchers, G. Kreutzner and E. M. Warth (eds.) Remote Control: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power, London: Routledge, pages 130–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, S. (1986) ‘Media Power and Class Power’, in J. Curran, J. Ecclestone, G. Oakley and A. Richardson (eds.) Bending Reality: The State of the Media, London: Pluto Press Limited, pages 5–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, S. (1997) ‘Discourse, Power and the Subject’, in S. Hall (ed.) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, London: SAGE Publications Limited, pages 41–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamill, H. (2002) ‘Victims of Paramilitary Punishment Attacks in Belfast’, in C. Hoyle and R. Young (eds.) New Visions of Crime Victims, Oxford: Hart Publishing, pages 49–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamill, H. (2011) The Hoods: Crime and Punishment in Belfast, Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hart, A. (1991) Understanding the Media: A Practical Guide, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jempson, M. (2010) The Media and Children’s Rights: A Resource for Journalists by Journalists (Third Edition), London: MediaWise and UNICEF.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jupp, V. (1989) Methods of Criminological Research, New York, USA: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Keeble, R. (2009) Ethics for Journalists (Second Edition), Oxon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lilly, J., Cullen, F. T. and Ball, R. A. (2011) Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, (Fifth Edition), London: SAGE Publications Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlister, S., Scraton, P. and Haydon D. (2009) Childhood in Transition: Experiencing Marginalisation and Conflict in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Queen’s University Belfast, Save the Children and Prince’s Trust Northern Ireland.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAlister, S., Scraton, P. and Haydon, D. (2011) ‘Place, Territory and Young People’s Identity in the “New” Northern Ireland’, in B. Goldson (ed.) Youth in Crisis? Gangs, Territoriality and Violence, London: Routledge, pages 89–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • McEvoy, K. and Ellison, T. eds. (2003) Criminology, Conflict Resolution and Restorative Justice, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, G. (2006) ‘Profits, Politics and Paramilitaries: The Local News Media in Northern Ireland’, in B. Franklin (ed.) Local Journalism and Local Media: Making the Local News, London: Routledge, pages 60–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • McRobbie, A. and Thornton, S. (1995) ‘Rethinking “Moral Panic” for Multi-mediated Social Worlds’, British Journal of Sociology, Volume 46, pages 559–574.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Merton, R. K. (1968) Social Theory and Social Structure, New York, USA: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, P. (2009) The Vanishing Newspaper, Missouri, USA: University of Missouri.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, P. and Golding, P. (1977) ‘Capitalism, Communication and Class Relations’, in J. Curran, M. Gurevitch and J. Woolacott (eds.) Mass Communication and Society, London: Edward Arnold, pages 12–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Osgerby, B. (2004) Youth Media, Oxon: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, D. K. (2002) Theory and Research in Mass Communication Contexts and Consequences (Second Edition), New Jersey, USA: Laurence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publisher.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poynting, S., Noble, G., Tabar, P. and Collins, J. (2004) Bin Laden in the Suburbs: Criminalising the Arab Other, Sydney Institute of Criminology Series, Number 18, Sydney: The Sydney Institute of Criminology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schirato, T. and Yell, S. (2000) Communication and Culture: An Introduction, London: SAGE Publications Limited.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schissel, B. (1997) Blaming Children: Youth Crime, Moral Panics and the Politics of Hate, Nova Scotia, Canada: Fernwood Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schissel, B. (2006) Still Blaming Children: Youth Conduct and the Politics of Child Hating, Nova Scotia, Canada: Fernwood Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scraton, P. (2007) Power, Conflict and Criminalisation, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scraton, P. (2008) ‘The Criminalisation and Punishment of Children and Young People: Introduction’, in P. Scraton (ed.) Current Issues in Criminal Justice, Volume 20, Number 1, pages 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simpson, B. (1997) ‘Youth Crime, the Media and Moral Panic’, in J. Bessant and R. Hil (eds.) Youth Crime and the Media: Media Representations of and Reactions to Young People in Relation to Law and Order, Hobart, Australia: Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies, pages 9–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Springhall, J. (2008) ‘“The Monsters Next Door: What Made Them Do It?” Moral Panics Over the Causes of High School Multiple Shootings (Notably Columbine)’, in Krinsky, C. (ed.) Moral Panics Over Contemporary Children and Youth, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited, pages 47–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Surette, R. (1998) Media, Crime and Criminal Justice: Images and Realities (Second Edition), California, USA: Wadsworth.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tolson, A. (1996) Mediations: Text and Discourse in Media Studies, London: Arnold Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • van Dijk, T. A. (1991) Racism and the Press: Critical Studies in Racism and Migration, London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, R. (2002) Understanding Youth Gangs, Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitman, L. (1992) Children in Northern Ireland Abused By Security Forces and Paramilitaries, USA: Human Rights Watch.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfsfeld, G. (2004) Media and the Path to Peace, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yiasouma, K. (2010) ‘Fluffy Bunny Philosophy: The Media and Policy Advocacy’, Presented at Media Representations of Children and Young People Seminar, Childhood, Transition and Social Justice Initiative, Queen’s University Belfast, 14 September.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Copyright information

© 2018 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Gordon, F. (2018). Conclusion: Reading Between the Headlines – Demonising and Scapegoating of Youth in Transition. In: Children, Young People and the Press in a Transitioning Society. Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-60682-2_8

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-60682-2_8

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, London

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-137-60681-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-137-60682-2

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)