Contemporary First Nation Lawmaking: New Spaces for Aboriginal Justice
Undeniably, indigenous peoples within Canadian borders have advantages that indigenous peoples in many other parts of the world do not. Canada recognises First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples in its constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada has progressively strengthened Aboriginal authority over land, waters, and natural resources. Since the early 1990s, the provincial and federal governments of Canada have been involved in modern treaty-making to further enshrine the rights of Aboriginal communities with whom the Crown lacked historical agreements. And while progress has been variable, Canada is engaged in a process of reconciliation for some of the worse aspects of its colonial history. In 2008, for example, Canada offered an apology on behalf of Canadians for the Indian residential schools system and signed the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, providing redress to victims and establishing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. As the former UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples summarises in his 2013 country report, ‘Canada’s relationship with the indigenous peoples within its borders is governed by a well-developed legal framework that in many respects is protective of indigenous peoples’ rights’ (Anaya 2013, p. 5).
- F. Abele (2007) Like an Ill-Fitting Boot: Government, Governance and Management Systems in the Contemporary Indian Act, (Vancouver, BC: National Centre for First Nations Governance).Google Scholar
- S. Anaya (2013) ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, James Anaya, on the Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada’, Document A/HRC/27/52/Add.2, UN Human Rights Council, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
- J. Borrows (2005) ‘Indigenous Legal Traditions in Canada’, Washington University Journal of Law and Policy, 19, 167–223.Google Scholar
- S. Brimley, S. Cornell, J. Flies-Away, M. Jorgensen, and R. Starks (2007) Resurgent Justice: Rebuilding the Mohawk Justice System, (Tucson, AZ: Native Nations Institute, The University of Arizona).Google Scholar
- P. Chartrand (2009) ‘Reconciling Indigenous Peoples’ Sovereignty and State Sovereignty’, http://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/products/discussion_paper/chartrandp-dp26-reconciling-indigenous-peoples-sovereignty-state-sovereignty.pdf, date accessed 29 July 2017.
- S. Cornell, C. Curtis, and M. Jorgensen (2003) The Concept of Governance and Its Implications for First Nations, (Native Nations Institute, The University of Arizona).Google Scholar
- S. Cornell and J. Kalt (2007) ‘Two Approaches to the Development of Native Nations: One Works, the Other Doesn’t’, in M. Jorgensen (ed.), Rebuilding Native Nations: Strategies for Governance and Development, (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 3–33.Google Scholar
- T. Fontaine (2016) ‘Indian Act Turns 140, but Few Celebrating’, CBC News|Indigenous, 12 April 2016, http://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/indian-act-turns-140-but-few-celebrating-1.3532810, date accessed 27 July 2017.
- W. Henderson (2016) ‘Law of Indigenous Peoples in Canada’, in The Canadian Encyclopedia, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people-law/, date accessed 27 July 2017.
- E. Hanson (2009) ‘The Indian Act’, Indigenous Foundations, http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/the_indian_act/, date accessed 30 July 2017.
- M. Hurley (2009) ‘The Indian Act’, Report PRB 09-12E, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
- Kahnawà:ke Legislative Coordinating Committee (n.d.) ‘Kahnawà:ke Community Decision Making Process: What Is the Community Decision-Making Process?’, http://www.kahnawakemakingdecisions.com/cdmp/, date accessed 24 July 2017.
- Kahnawà:ke Legislative Coordinating Commission (n.d.-a) ‘Types of Legislation—Type I’, http://www.kahnawakemakingdecisions.com/cdmp/process1.asp, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- Kahnawà:ke Legislative Coordinating Commission (n.d.-b) ‘Types of Legislation—Type II’, http://www.kahnawakemakingdecisions.com/cdmp/process2.asp, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- Kahnawà:ke Legislative Coordinating Commission (n.d.-a) ‘Types of Legislation—Urgent’, http://www.kahnawakemakingdecisions.com/cdmp/urgent.asp, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- M. Mitchell (2011a) ‘Taking Control of Conservation, Part II of III’, (video recorded interview), Native Nations Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.Google Scholar
- M. Mitchell (2011b) ‘Taking Control of Conservation, Part III of III’, (video recorded interview), Native Nations Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.Google Scholar
- Mohawk Council of Akwesasne (2017a) ‘Akwesasne Law’, http://www.akwesasne.ca/laws, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- Mohawk Council of Akwesasne (2017b) ‘Legislative Development’, http://www.akwesasne.ca/legislativedevelopment, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- Mohawk Council of Kahnawà:ke (2017) ‘Tsi Nitiohtón:ne oká:ra, History of Kahnawà:ke’, http://www.kahnawake.com/community/history.asp, date accessed 26 July 2017.
- G. Valiante (2016) ‘Akwesasne Creates First Independent Indigenous Court in Canada’, The Globe and Mail, 2 October 2016, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/akwesasne-creates-first-independent-indigenous-court-in-canada/article32204779/, date accessed 27 July 2017.
Legislation and Cases
- British North America Act 1867 30–31 Vict., c.3 (U.K.).Google Scholar
- Canada-Métis Nation Accord 2017.Google Scholar
- Constitution Act 1867.Google Scholar
- Constitution Act 1982.Google Scholar
- Indian Act R.S.C. 1985, c. I-5.Google Scholar
- Indian Act Amendment and Replacement Act, S.C. 2014.Google Scholar
- Tekaia’torehthà:ke Kaianerénhsera (Akwesasne Court Law), Kaiahnehronsehra iehiontakwa 2016–01.Google Scholar
- Wildlife Conservation Law, Kaiahnehronsehra iehiontakwa 2015–30.Google Scholar
- Connolly v Woolrich  17 R.J.R.Q. 75.Google Scholar
- Daniels v Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development)  1 S.C.R. 9.Google Scholar
- Delgamuukw v British Columbia  3 SCR 1010.Google Scholar
- Haida Nation v British Columbia (Minister of Forests)  3 S.C.R. 511.Google Scholar
- Tsilhqot’in Nation v British Columbia  2 S.C.R. 256.Google Scholar