The European Union and the Armenian–Azerbaijani Conflict: Lessons Not Learned
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The European Union (EU) has gradually become an important factor in the South Caucasus, but has sought to avoid entanglement in the unresolved conflicts, and continues to lack a seat at the table in negotiations over Nagorno-Karabakh. In its efforts to handle the diverging positions of Armenia and Azerbaijan, the EU in negotiations over Partnership and Cooperation Agreements with the two countries sought to finesse the issue, and failed to stick to a principled position adopted for all unresolved conflicts in the neighborhood. Over time, European policy on territorial integrity and self-determination has evolved: Kosovo suggested a move away from the ironclad principle of territorial integrity, while Crimea led Europe in the opposite direction, back toward a principled commitment to this concept.