Extreme Right, the Internet and European Politics in CEE Countries: The Cases of Slovakia and the Czech Republic

  • Manuela Caiani
  • Alena Kluknavská
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Political Sociology book series (PSEPS)


This chapter addresses the relationship between the use of new media and European democracy and legitimacy, examining the networks of contacts that several types of (Eurosceptic) extreme right groups create online in two Eastern European countries, as well as the anti-European discourses that these radical actors diffuse (offline and online) through these networks. How important is Europe and European integration in comparison with other topics in the political discourse of extreme right organisations? To which specific issue does Europe refer? What are the solutions suggested against European integration? Who are the ‘us’ and the ‘them’ according to right-wing extremists in relation to Europe?


Extreme right/far right Online radical politics Social network analysis Frames 


  1. Ackland, R. and Gibson, R. (2005). Mapping political party networks on the WWW.Paper presented at the Australian Electronic Governance Conference, April 14–15, University of Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, D. (2010). Europeanized eurosceptics? radical right parties and European integration. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 11(3), pp. 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett, J., Birdwell, J. and Littler, M. (2011). “The Rise of Populism in Europe can be Traced Through Online Behaviour…” The New Face of Digital Populism. London, UK: Demos.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, W.L. and Segerberg, A. (2012). The logic of connective action. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), pp. 739–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowman-Grieve, L. (2009). Exploring “stormfront”: A virtual community of the radical right. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(11), pp. 989–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruszt, L., Balázs, V. and Stark, D. (2005). Shaping the web of civic participation: Civil society websites in Eastern Europe. Journal of Public Policy, 25(01), pp. 149–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burris, V., Smith, E. and Strahm, A. (2000). White supremacist networks on the internet. Sociological Focus, 33(2), pp. 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bustikova, L. (2009). The extreme right in Eastern Europe: EU accession and the quality of governance. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 17(2), pp. 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caiani, M., Porta, D.D. and Wagemann, C. (2012). Mobilizing on the Extreme Right: Germany, Italy, and the United States. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caiani, M. (2014). Le grandi contraddizioni della destra populista. Il Mulino, 473(3), pp. 450–458.Google Scholar
  11. Caiani, M. and Parenti, L. (2013). European and American Extreme Right Groups and The Internet. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  12. Caiani, M. and Wagemann, C. (2009). Online networks of the Italian and German extreme right. Information, Communication & Society, 12(1), pp. 66–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldiron, G. (2001). La Destra Plurale. Rome: Manifestolibri.Google Scholar
  14. Chase-Dunn, C. and Boswell, T. (2004). Global democracy: A world-systems perspective. Protosociology, 20, pp. 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cinalli, M. and Füglister, K. (2008). Networks and political contention over unemployment: A comparison of Britain, Germany, and Switzerland. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 13(3), pp. 259–276.Google Scholar
  16. De Koster, W. and Houtman, D. (2008). Stormfront is like a second home to me. Information, Communication & Society, 11(8), pp. 1155–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Della Porta, D. and Caiani, M. (2009). Social Movements and Europeanization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Della Porta, D. and Mosca, L. (2006). Democrazia in rete: Stili di comunicazione e movimenti sociali in Europa. Rassegna Italiana Di Sociologia, 4, pp. 529–556.Google Scholar
  19. Diani, M. (2003). Networks and social movements: A research programme. In: M. Diani and D. McAdam, (eds.), Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 299–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diani, M. (2015). The Cement of Civil Society. Studying Networks in Localities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Europol (2012). TE-SAT 2012. EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report. European Police Office.Google Scholar
  22. Ferrari, S. (2012). Il Panorama dell estrema destra europea. Populismi e destre estreme ad est e a ovest. In: I nuovi populismi e le destre estreme in Europa. Le sfide e le prospettive per la sinistra, Edizioni Punto Rosso.Google Scholar
  23. Gunther, R. and Diamond, L. (2003). Species of political parties. Party Politics, 9(2), pp. 167–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hanley, S. (2013). The Czech Republicans, 1990–8: A populist outsider in a consolidating democracy. In: C. Mudde and C.R. Kaltwasser, (eds.), Populism in Europe and the Americas. Threat or Corrective for Democracy?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 68–87.Google Scholar
  25. Hanneman, R.A. (2001). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Department of Sociology, University of California, Riverside, Department of Sociology.Google Scholar
  26. Hermet, G. (2001). Les Populismes dans le monde: Une histoire sociologique XIXe-XXe siècle (espace du politique). Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  27. Kluknavská, A. and Hruška, M. (2015). We are talking about “us” vs. “them” and you are listening: The extreme right party and its leader Marian Kotleba on Facebook. Paper presented at workshop Two years after: What is the image and support for Marian Kotleba and how to effectively mitigate extreme attitudes, October 15, Bratislava: CENAA.Google Scholar
  28. Kriesi, H. (2008). Political mobilisation, political participation and the power of the vote. West European Politics, 31(1–2), pp. 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loch, D. (2009). Globalization and Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Paper presented at ESA Conference, Lisbon, September 2–5.Google Scholar
  30. Mareš, M. (2012). Right-Wing Extremism in the Czech Republic (policy paper), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  31. Mény, Y. and Surel, Y. (2000). Par Le Peuple, Pour Le Peuple. Le Populisme Et Les démocraties. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  32. Milo, D. (2005). Slovakia. In: C. Mudde, (ed.), Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, London: Routledge, pp. 195–224.Google Scholar
  33. Minkenberg, M. (2002). The radical right in postsocialist central and Eastern Europe: Comparative observations and interpretations. East European Politics and Societies, 16(2), pp. 335–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Minkenberg, M. (2011). The radical right in Europe today: Trends and patterns in east and west. In: N. Langenbacher and B. Schellenberg, (eds.), Is Europe on the “right” path? Right-wing extremism and right-wing populism in Europe, Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, pp. 37–56.Google Scholar
  35. Minkenberg, M. (2013a). From pariah to policy-maker? The radical right in Europe, west and east: Between margin and mainstream. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 21(1), pp. 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Minkenberg, M. (2013b). The European radical right and xenophobia in eest and east: Trends, patterns and challenges. In: R. Melzer and S. Serafin, (eds), Right-wing extremism in Europe. Country Analyses, Counter-Strategies and Labor-Market Oriented Exit Strategies, Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, pp. 9–34.Google Scholar
  37. Minkenberg, M. (2015). Transforming the Transformation? The East European Radical Right in the Political Process. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Mosca, L. and Vaccari, C. (2012). Nuovi media e nuova politica? Partecipazione e mobilitazione online da MoveOn al Movimento 5 stelle. Milan: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  39. Mudde, C. (2002). The Ideology of the Extreme Right. Manchester: Manchester University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mudde, C. (2005). Racist extremism in Central and Eastern Europe. East European Politics and Societies, 19(2), pp. 161–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mudde, C. (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nociar, T. (2012). Right-Wing Extremism in Slovakia (policy paper), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, pp.1–14. Available at: [Accessed 17 August 2016].
  43. Pirro, A. (2014). Digging into the breeding ground: Insights into the electoral performance of populist radical right parties in Central and Eastern Europe. East European Politics, 30(2), pp. 246–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ramalingam, V. (2012). Far-right Extremism: Trends and Methods for Response and Prevention (Policy Briefing). Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Available at:
  45. Rogers, R. (2013). Mapping public web space with the issuecrawler. In: C. Brossard and B. Reber, (eds.), Digital Cognitive Technologies: Epistemology and Knowledge Society, London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scott, J. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Snow, D.A. and Benford, R.D. (1988). Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization. International Social Movement Research, 1(1), pp. 197–217.Google Scholar
  48. Snow, D.A. and Benford, R.D. (1992). Master frames and cycles of protest. In: J. Morris and E. Mueller, (eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, London: Yale University Press, pp. 136–152.Google Scholar
  49. Snow, D.A., Rochford, E.B., Worden, S.K. and Benford, R.D. (1986). Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. American Sociological Review, 51(4), pp. 464–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tateo, L. (2005). The Italian extreme right on-line network: An exploratory study using an integrated social network analysis and content analysis approach. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2), p. 00.Google Scholar
  51. Tilly, C. (2003). The Politics of Collective Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Treib, O. (2014). The voter says no, but nobody listens: Causes and consequences of the Eurosceptic vote in the 2014 European elections. Journal of European Public Policy, 21(10), pp. 1541–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Whine, M. (2012). Trans-European trends in right-wing extremism. In: A. Mammone, E. Godin and B. Jenkins, (eds.), Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe, London: Routledge, pp. 317–334.Google Scholar
  54. Zhou, Y., Reid, E., Qin, J., Chen, H. and Lai, G. (2005). US domestic extremist groups on the web: Link and content analysis. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 20(5), pp. 44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Humanities and Social SciencesScuola Normale SuperioreFirenzeItaly
  2. 2.Centre for Nonprofit Sector Research, Faculty of Economics and AdministrationMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations