In the concluding chapter of this book, Mulchinock provides a final synopsis of NATO’s two-decade long engagement in this region. What were the major lessons that the alliance learned from these experiences? These are looked at from the perspectives of debates relating to the use of force, peace enforcement operations and alliance politics. NATO’s continued role in this region is also addressed. Is the alliance now in a position to hand over all operations in this region to the European Union? Which of the remaining countries in the Western Balkans are most likely to join the alliance in the next number of years?