Advertisement

On Living in a Multicultural Environment

  • Elke Murdock
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)

Abstract

In Chap.  3 the origins of multiculturalism were explained. As was noted, multiculturalism can have different meanings—referring to the demographic composition of society, a policy promoting diversity and equality and finally an attitude towards a culturally plural society. Whereas acculturation refers to the psychological consequences of prolonged exposure to another culture, multiculturalism at the individual level refers to the acceptance of and support for the culturally plural composition of societies at large (Celenk & van de Vijver, 2014). The focus of this chapter is the individual living in a multicultural environment and the factors influencing an individual’s attitude towards a plurally composed society. First, multiculturalism as a psychological concept will be explained, before two empirical studies will be presented. These studies investigate the attitude to multiculturalism, and in particular specific factors thought to influence this attitude. Previous studies have shown that even though multiculturalism is a broad, multifaceted concept, the attitude towards multiculturalism is actually a unidimensional construct, even though the support for multiculturalism across domains varies.

Keywords

Positive Attitude Language Competence Multicultural Society Cultural Maintenance Combine Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2003). Multiculturalism and acculturation: Views of Dutch and Turkish-Dutch. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(2), 249–266. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berry, J., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 National Survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27(3), 301–320. doi: 10.1037/0008-400X.27.3.301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boll, T. (1999). Verfahrensbeschreibung zurWerte-Liste”: Problemhintergrund, Konstruktionsprinzip, Dimensions-und Skalenanalysen. Universität Trier, FB Psychologie. Internal Report.Google Scholar
  4. Bourhis, R., Moise, L., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386. doi: 10.1080/002075997400629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brandtstädter, J. (2007). Das flexible Selbst. Selbstentwicklung zwischen Zielbindung und Ablösung. Heidelberg: Elsevier/SpektrumAkademischerVerlag.Google Scholar
  6. Breugelmans, S. M., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2004). Antecedents and components of majority attitudes toward multiculturalism in the Netherlands. Applied Psychology, 53(3), 400–422. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00177.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Breugelmans, S. M., van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Schalk-Soekar, S. G. S. (2009). Stability of majority attitudes toward multiculturalism in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2007. Applied Psychology, 58(4), 653–671. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00368.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celenk, Ö., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2014). Assessment of psychological acculturation and multiculturalism: An overview of measures in the public domain. In V. Benet-Martínez & Y.-Y. Hong (Eds.), Oxford handbook of multicultural identity: Basic and applied psychological perspectives. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. H., & Vecchione, M. (2013). Applying the refined values theory to past data: What can researchers gain? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(8), 1215–1234. doi: 10.1177/0022022113487076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Citrin, J., & Sears, D. (2001). Multiculturalism in American public opinion. British Journal of Political Science, 31(2), 247–275. doi: 10.1017/S0007123401000102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein, S. (1979). Entwurf einer Integrativen Persönlichkeitstheorie. In S. H. Filipp (Ed.), Selbstkonzept-Forschung: Probleme, Befunde, Perspektiven (pp. 15–45). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
  12. Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. The American Psychologist, 49(8), 709–724. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.49.8.709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eurostat (2011). Migrants in Europe. A statistical portrait of the first and second generation. Eurostat statistical books (2011 ed.). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi: 10.2785/5318.
  14. Etat de la Population. (2014). Ville de Luxembourg. Sstatistique sur la Ville de Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  15. Fiske, S. T. (2010). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Glaesmer, H., Grande, G., Braehler, E., & Roth, M. (2011). The German version of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). European Journal of Psychological Assessment.Google Scholar
  17. Heath, A., & Tilley, J. (2005). British national identity and attitudes towards immigration. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 7(2), 119–132.Google Scholar
  18. Ho, R. (1990). Multiculturalism in Australia: A survey of attitudes. Human Relations, 43(3), 259–272.Google Scholar
  19. John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2(1999), 102–138.Google Scholar
  20. Kremer, M. (2013). The Netherlands: From national identity to plural identifications. Transatlantic Council on Migration, Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  21. Leong, C.-H., & Ward, C. (2006). Cultural values and attitudes toward immigrants and multiculturalism: The case of the Eurobarometer survey on racism and xenophobia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 799–810. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maehler, D., & Schmidt-Denter, U. (2013). Migrationsforschung in Deutschland: Leitfaden und Messinstrumente zur Erfassung psychologischer Konstrukte. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  23. Medrano, J. (2005). Nation, citizenship and immigration in contemporary Spain. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 7(2), 133–156.Google Scholar
  24. Moran, A. (2011). Multiculturalism as nation-building in Australia: Inclusive national identity and the embrace of diversity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(12), 2153–2172. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2011.573081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murdock, E., & Ferring, D. (2013). Multikulturalismus—Multiplicity. Eine Meinungsumfrage zur Frage des Zusammenlebens in einer multikulturellen Gesellschaft. University of Luxembourg, INSIDE, Internal Report.Google Scholar
  26. Murdock, E., & Ferring, D. (2014) On being bicultural in a multicultural society. European Association for Research on Adolescences (EARA) Newsletter, May 2014, 9–12.Google Scholar
  27. Péporté, P. (2011). Constructing the middle ages: Historiography, collective memory and nation-building in Luxembourg (Vol. 3). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  28. Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 203–212. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2006.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roccas, S., & Sagiv, L. (2010). Personal values and behavior: Taking the cultural context into account. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(1), 30–41. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00234.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schalk-Soekar, S. (2007). Multiculturalism. A stable concept with many ideological and political aspects. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tilburg, The Netherlands).Google Scholar
  31. Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G., Breugelmans, S. M., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2009). Support for multiculturalism in The Netherlands. UNESCO. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2451.2009.00698.x/full
  32. Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2008). The concept of multiculturalism: A study among Dutch majority members. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(8), 2152–2178. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00385.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G., van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Hoogsteder, M. (2004). Attitudes toward multiculturalism of immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(6), 533–550. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Croon, M. A. (2008). Strength of multicultural attitudes: A longitudinal study among Dutch mainstreamers. Submitted for publication. Quoted in Van de Vijver, F. J., Breugelmans, S. M., & Schalk-Soekar, S. R. (2008). Multiculturalism: Construct validity and stability. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2), 93–104.Google Scholar
  35. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25(1), 1–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartz, S. H. (n.d.). Chapter 7: A proposal for measuring value orientations across nations. 259–319. Retrieved from: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/methodology/core_ess_questionnaire/ESS_core_questionnaire_human_values.pdf
  38. Schwartz, S. H. (n.d.) Computing scores for the 10 human values. Retrieved from: http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/docs/methodology/ESS1_human_values_scale
  39. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(3), 550–562. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.53.3.550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., et al. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(4), 663–688. doi: 10.1037/a0029393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz, S. H., & Sagiv, L. (1995). Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(1), 92–116. doi: 10.1177/0022022195261007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Van de Vijver, F. J. R., Breugelmans, S. M., & Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G. (2008). Multiculturalism: Construct validity and stability. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2), 93–104. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Van de Vijver, F. J. R., Schalk-Soekar, S. R. G., Arends-Tóth, J., & Breugelmans, S. M. (2006). Cracks in the wall of multiculturalism? A review of attitudinal studies in the Netherlands. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 8(1), 104–120.Google Scholar
  44. Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Prins, K. S., & Buunk, B. P. (1998). Attitudes of minority and majority members towards adaptation of immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28(6), 995–1013. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(1998110)28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verkuyten, M. (2005). Ethnic group identification and group evaluation among minority and majority groups: Testing the multiculturalism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 121–138. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Verkuyten, M., & Martinovic, B. (2006). Understanding multicultural attitudes: The role of group status, identification, friendships, and justifying ideologies. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.05.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Verkuyten, M., & Masson, K. (1995). ‘New racism’, self-esteem, and ethnic relations among minority and majority youth in the Netherlands. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 23(2), 137–154. doi: 10.2224/sbp.1995.23.2.137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Weinreich, P., & Saunderson, W. (Eds.) (2003). Analysing identity: Cross-cultural, societal and clinical contexts. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Yogeeswaran, K., & Dasgupta, N. (2014). The devil is in the details: Abstract versus concrete construals of multiculturalism differentially impact intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(5), 772–789. doi: 10.1037/a0035830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zick, A., Wagner, U., van Dick, R., & Petzel, T. (2001). Acculturation and prejudice in Germany: Majority and minority perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 541–557. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elke Murdock
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LuxembourgEsch-sur-AlzetteLuxembourg

Personalised recommendations