Advertisement

Introduction

  • Peidong Yang
Chapter
  • 433 Downloads
Part of the Anthropological Studies of Education book series (ASE)

Abstract

Opening with two ethnographic snapshots to illustrate the recent social tensions and controversies revolving around foreign students receiving Singaporean government scholarships, this introductory chapter locates the protagonists of this book, that is, “PRC scholars” in Singapore, in two contexts respectively: (1) the Singapore state’s “foreign talent” policy in response to economic and demographic challenges and (2) international educational mobility as an emerging phenomenon of interest to social scientific inquiry. This location-ing helps provide the essential backgrounds to the project and elucidates the contributions this book seeks to make to the studies of contemporary Singapore and to the studies of internationally mobile students. The chapter also provides an account of the ethnographic fieldwork underpinning the book, as well as an overview of the chapters to follow.

Keywords

Singapore China Foreign talent Immigration International student mobility Educational desire 

References

  1. Adler, P. S. (1975). The transitional experience: An alternative view of culture shock. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(4), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agar, M. (1996). Language shock: Understanding the culture of conversation. New York: Harper Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis, MN/London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Appadurai, A. (2004). The capacity to aspire: Culture and the terms of recognition. In V. Rao & M. Walton (Eds.), Culture and public action (pp. 59–84). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Au Yong, J. (2012, November 22). NUS and the Alvin Tan dilemma. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://www.singapolitics.sg/views/nus-and-alvin-tan-dilemma
  6. Aveni, V. A. P. (2005). Study abroad and second language use: Constructing the self. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baas, M. (2010). Imagined mobility: Migration and transnationalism among Indian students in Australia. London/New York: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barr, M. (2000). Lee Kuan Yew: The beliefs behind the man. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.Google Scholar
  9. Basch, L., Schiller, N. G., & Blanc-Szanton, C. (1994). Nations unbound: Transnational projects, post-colonial predicaments, and de-territorialized nation-states. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  10. Becker, G. (1964). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Bokhorse-Heng, W. (1999). Singapore’s Speak Mandarin Campaign: Language ideological debates in the imagining of the nation. In J. Blommaert (Ed.), Language ideological debates (pp. 235–265). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  13. Brooks, R., & Waters, J. (2011). Student mobilities, migration and the internationlization of Higher Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, D. (1994). The state and ethnic politics in South-East Asia. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, L. (2008). Language and anxiety: An ethnographic study of international postgraduate students. Evaluation & Research in Education, 21(2), 75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, L. (2009a). An ethnographic study of the friendship patterns of international students in England: An attempt to recreate home through conational interaction. International Journal of Educational Research, 48, 184–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, L. (2009b). A failure of communication on the cross-cultural campus. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(4), 439–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, L., & Holloway, I. (2008). The adjustment journey of international postgraduate students at an English university. Journal of Research in International Education, 7(2), 232–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, J., & Li, M. (2008). Asian students’ voices: An empirical study of Asian students’ learning experiences at a New Zealand university. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(4), 375–396. doi: 10.1177/1028315307299422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castells, M. (1989). The information city: Information technology, economic restructuring, and the urban-regional process. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. Castells, M. (2000). The rise of the network society (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  22. Choudaha, R., Orosz, K., & Chang, L. (2012). Not all international students are the same: Understanding segments, mapping behavior. New York: World Education Services.Google Scholar
  23. Chow, G. C. (2007). China’s economic transformation (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Chowdhury, A., & Islam, I. (1993). The newly industrializing economies of East Asia. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Chua, B. H. (2009). Being Chinese under official multiculturalism in Singapore. Asian Ethnicity, 10(3), 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Collins, F. L., Sidhu, R., Lewis, N., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2014). Mobility and desire: International students and Asian regionalism in aspirational Singapore. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 35(5), 661–676.Google Scholar
  27. Department of Statistics Singapore. (2014). Population trends 2014. Singapore: Department of Statistics.Google Scholar
  28. Dervin, F. (2011). A plea for change in research on intercultural discourses: A ‘liquid’ approach to the study of the acculturation of Chinese students. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 6(1), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dervin, F. (2014). Chinese students and scholars in the global community: Challenges of integration [special issue]. Frontiers of Education in China, 9(3), 297–455.Google Scholar
  30. Dervin, F. (Ed.). (2015). Chinese educational migration and student-teacher mobilities: Experiencing otherness. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Drucker, P. (1969). The age of discontiunity: Guidelines to our changing society. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  32. Faist, T. (2000). Transnationalization in international migration: Implications for the study of citizenship and culture. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(2), 189–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class: And how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Fong, V. (2011). Paradise redefined: Transnational Chinese students and the quest for flexible citizenship in the developed world. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 87–104). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  36. Goh, D. P. S. (2012). Oriental purity: Postcolonial discomfort and Asian values. Positions, 20(4), 1041–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goh, D. P. S. (2014). Elite schools, postcolonial Chineseness and hegemonic masculinity in Singapore. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(1), 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gomes, C. (2014). Xenophobia online: Unmasking Singaporean attitudes towards ‘foreign talent’ migrants. Asian Ethnicity, 15(1), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gopinathan, S. (2007). Globalisation, the Singapore developmental state and education policy: A thesis revisited. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 5(1), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gordon, C. (1991). Governmental rationality: An introduction. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 1–52). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Gu, Q., & Maley, A. (2008). Changing places: A study of Chinese students in the UK. Language and Intercultural Communication, 8(4), 224–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hannerz, U. (1996). Transnational connections: Culture, people, places. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Hansen, A. S., & Thøgersen, S. (2015). Going out: The lives of Chinese students abroad [special issue]. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 44(3), 3–212.Google Scholar
  44. He, Y. (2008, August 15). Give scholarships to foreigners with care, The Straits Times.Google Scholar
  45. Held, D., & McGrew, A. (2000). The global transformation reader. Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  46. Hill, M. (2000). ‘Asian values’ as reverse Orientalism: Singapore. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 41(2), 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoffman, L. M. (2010). Patriotic professionalism in urban China. Fostering talent. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Holmes, P. (2004). Negotiating differences in learning and intercultural communication: Ethnic Chinese students in a New Zealand university. Business Communication Quarterly, 67(3), 294–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Holmes, P. (2007). Ethnic Chinese students’ communication with cultural others in a New Zealand university. Communication Education, 54(4), 289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang, S., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2005). Transnational families and their children’s education: China’s “study mothers” in Singapore. Global Networks, 5(4), 379–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hudson, C. (2013). Beyond the Singapore girl: Discourses of gender and nation in Singapore. Copenhagen, Denmark: NIAS Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kajanus, A. (2015). Chinese student migration, gender and family. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keeley, B. (2007). Human capital: How what you know shapes your life. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim, Y. Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  55. Kipnis, A. (2011a). Governing educational desire: Culture, politics and schooling in China. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koh, A. (2003). Global flows of foreign talent: Identity anxieties in Singapore’s ethnoscape. SOJOURN, 18(2), 230–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kong, L. (2000). Cultural policy in Singapore: Negotiating economic and socio-cultural agendas. Geoforum, 31(4), 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuah, K. E. (1990). Confucian ideology and social engineering in Singapore. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 20(3), 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lai, A. E. (1995). Meanings of multiethnicity: A case-study of ethnicity and ethnic relations in Singapore. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lee, J. J. (2010). International students’ experiences and attitudes at a US host institution: Self-reports and future recommendations. Journal of Research in International Education, 9(1), 66–84. doi: 10.1177/1475240909356382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53(3), 381–409. doi: 10.2307/29735060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Levitt, P., & Glick Schiller, N. (2004). Conceptualizing simultaneity: A transnational social field perspective on society. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1002–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewthwaite, M. (1996). A study of international students’ perspectives on cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 19(2), 167–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Long, N. (2011). On having achieved appropriation: Anak Berprestasi in Kepri, Indonesia. In V. Strang & M. Busse (Eds.), Ownership and appropriation (pp. 43–64). Oxford/New York: BERG.Google Scholar
  65. Low, L. (2002a). Globalisation and the political economy of Singapore’s policy on foreign talent and high skills. Journal of Education and Work, 15(4), 409–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lynch, K. (2006). Neo-liberalism and marketisation: The implications for higher education. European Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Marginson, S. (2008). Global field and global imagining: Bourdieu and worldwide higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29(3), 303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marginson, S. (2014). Student self-formation in international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marginson, S., & Sawir, E. (2011). Ideas for intercultural education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Milstein, T. (2005). Transformation abroad: Sojourning and the perceived enhancement of self-efficacy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2), 217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moutsios, S. (2009). International organisations and transnational education policy. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(4), 469–481.Google Scholar
  72. Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2003). An experience of interculturality: Student travellers abroad. In G. Alred, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Eds.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 101–113). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  73. Nasir, K. M., & Turner, B. S. (2014). The future of Singapore: Population, society and the nature of the state. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Newman, J. (1988). Singapore’s Speak Mandarin Campaign. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 9(5), 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. OECD. (2013). Education indicators in focus—2013/05 (July). Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/EDIF2013--N%C2%B014%28eng%29-Final.pdf
  76. Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Peck, J., & Tickell, A. (2006). Conceptualising neoliberalism, thinking Thatcherism. In H. Leitner, J. Peck, & E. S. Sheppard (Eds.), Contesting neoliberalism: Urban frontiers (pp. 184–203). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Philomin, L. E. (2015). Are Singaporeans anti-foreigner? Not in the real world. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/are-singaporeans-anti/1777708.html
  79. Reich, R. (1992). The work of nations. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  80. Rizvi, F. (2000). International education and the production of global imagination. In N. C. Burbules & C. A. Torres (Eds.), Globalisation and education. Critical perspectives (pp. 205–225). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Rizvi, F. (2011). Theorizing student mobility in an era of globalization. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 17(6), 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B. (2010). Globalizing education policy. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Robertson, S. (2009). Europe, competitiveness and higher education: An evolving project. In R. Dale & S. Robertson (Eds.), Globalisation and Europeanisation in education (pp. 65–83). Oxford, UK: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  84. Robertson, S. (2013b). Transnational student-migrants and the state: The education-migration nexus. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  85. Rodan, G. (1989). The political economy of Singapore’s industrialization: National state and international capital. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  86. Rofel, L. (2007). Desiring China: Experiments in neoliberalism, sexuality, and public culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rose, N. (1999). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rose, N., & Miller, P. (2008). Governing the present: Administering economic, social and personal life. Cambridge, MA: Polity.Google Scholar
  89. Roy, D. (1994). Singapore, China, and the “soft authoritarian” challenge. Asian Survey, 34(3), 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rubenson, K. (2008). OECD educational policies and world hegemony. In R. Mahon & S. McBride (Eds.), The OECD and transnational governance (pp. 293–314). Vancouver, BC: British Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Rumsey, A. (2004). Ethnographic macro-tropes and anthropological theory. Anthropological Theory, 4(3), 267–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ryan, M. E., & Twibell, R. S. (2000). Concerns, values, stress, coping, health and educational outcomes of college students who studied abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 409–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sidhu, R. (2006). Universities and globalisation: To market, to market. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  94. Sin, I. L. (2009). The aspiration for social distinction: Malaysian students in a British university. Studies in Higher Education, 34(3), 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Siu, N. Y. M., & Lau, C. P. (1998). Training and development practices in the People’s Republic of China. China Report, 34(1), 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Soon, C., & Tan, T. H. (2013). Corrosive speech: What can be done. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy.Google Scholar
  97. Soong, H. (2016). Transnational students and mobility: Lived experiences of migration. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  98. Sun, S. H.-L. (2011). Population policy and reproduction in Singapore: Making future citizens. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Tan, E. K. B. (2003). Re-engaging Chineseness: Political, economic and cultural imperatives of nation-building in Singapore. The China Quarterly, 175, 751–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tan, E. S. (2005). Globalization, nation-building and emigration: The Singapore case. In B. P. Lorente, N. Piper, H.-H. Shen, & B. S. A. Yeoh (Eds.), Asian migrations: Sojourning, displacement, homecoming and other travels (pp. 87–98). Singapore: Asia Research Institute.Google Scholar
  101. Teng, S S. (2005). What “Chineseness”, whose “Chineseness”? : A preliminary assessment of “sinicisation” in the discussion of culture and ethnicity in postcolonial Singapore. Department of Sociology Graduate Journal. from http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/graduate_journal/5_teng.pdf
  102. The Straits Times. (2008, November 22). 5 waves of Chinese immigrants in Singapore, The Straits Times.Google Scholar
  103. Tian, M., & Lowe, J. (2009). Existentialist internationalisation and the Chinese student experience in English universities. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(5), 659–676. doi: 10.1080/03057920903125693.Google Scholar
  104. UNESCO. (2013). The international mobility of students in Asia and the Pacific. Paris/Bangkok: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.Google Scholar
  105. Vasu, N., Yeap, S. Y., & Chan, W. L. (Eds.). (2014). Immigration in Singapore. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd ed.). East Sussex, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Waters, J. (2005). Transnational family strategies and education in the contemporary Chinese diaspora. Global Networks, 5(4), 359–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Waters, J. (2008). Education, migration, and cultural capital in the Chinese diaspora. Transnational students between Hong Kong and Canada. Amherst, Hampshire: Cambria Press.Google Scholar
  109. Wee, L. (2003). Linguistic instrumentalism in Singapore. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 24(3), 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wieviorka, M. (2013). A critique of integration. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. doi: 10.1080/1070289X.2013.828615.Google Scholar
  111. Xiao, J., & Tsang, M. C. (1999). Human capital development in an emerging economy: The experience of Shenzhen, China. China Quarterly, 157, 72–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yamazaki, Y. (2005). Learning styles and typologies of cultural differences: A theoretical and empirical comparison. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(5), 521–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yang, P. (2014) “Authenticity” and “foreign talent” in Singapore: The Relative and negative logic of national identity. SOJOURN: Journal of Social issues in Southeast Asuia, 29(2), 408–437.Google Scholar
  114. Yang, P. (2016). ‘Eliteness’ in Chinese schooling: Towards an ethnographic approach. In C. Maxwell & P. Aggleton (Eds.), Elite education. International perspectives (pp. 135–147). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  115. Yap, M. T., Koh, G., & Soon, D. (Eds.). (2015). Migration and integration in Singapore: Policies and practice. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  116. Yearbook of Statistics Singapore 2015. (2013). Singapore: Department of Statistics, Singapore.Google Scholar
  117. Yeoh, B. S. A. (2013). ‘Upwards’ or ‘sideways’ cosmopolitanism? Talent/labour/marriage migrations in the globalising city-state of Singapore. Migration Studies, 1(1), 96–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yeoh, B. S. A., & Lin, W. (2013). Chinese migration to Singapore: Discourses and discontents in a globalizing nation-state. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 22(1), 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yim, C. C. (2011). Transnational social spaces and transnationalism: A study on the new Chinese migrant community in Singapore, Doctor of Philosophy. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  120. Yong, O-K. (2008, December 6). Fewer PRC nationals than reported, The Straits Times. Google Scholar
  121. Yusuf, S., & Nabeshima, K. (2006). Postindustrial East Asian cities: Innovation for growth. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang, Z., & Brunton, M. (2007). Differences in living and learning: Chinese international students in New Zealand. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(2), 124–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peidong Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations