Alexander, Amy C. 2012. Change in Women’s Descriptive Representation and the Belief in Women’s Ability to Govern: A Virtuous Cycle. Politics & Gender 8 (4): 437–464.
Anderson, Miriam J., and Liam Swiss. 2014. Peace Accords and the Adoption of Electoral Quotas for Women in the Developing World, 1990–2006. Politics & Gender 10: 33–61.
Barnes, Tiffany D., and Stephanie M. Burchard. 2013. “Engendering” Politics: The Impact of Descriptive Representation on Women’s Political Engagement in Sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative Political Studies 46 (7): 767–790.
Baudino, Claudie. 2003. Parity Reform in France: Promises and Pitfalls. Review of Policy Research 20 (3): 385–400.
Bauer, Gretchen, and Hannah Evelyn Britton (eds.). 2006. Women in African Parliaments. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Bauer, Gretchen, and Jennie E. Burnet. 2013. Gender Quotas, Democracy, and Women’s Political Representation in Africa: Some Insights from Botswana and Autocratic Rwanda. Women’s Studies International Forum 41 (2): 103–112.
Beaman, Lori, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande, and Petia Topalova. 2009. Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias? The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4): 1497–1540.
Beaman, Lori, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande, and Petia Topalova. 2012. Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India. Science 335 (6068): 582–586.
Berkman, Michael B., and Robert E. O’Connor. 1993. Do Women Legislators Matter? Female Legislators and State Abortion Policy. American Politics Quarterly 21 (1): 102–124.
Bird, Karen. 2003. Who Are the Women? Where Are the Women? And What Difference Can They Make? Effects of Gender Parity in French Municipal Elections. French Politics 1 (1): 5–38.
Bratton, Kathleen A., and Kerry L. Haynie. 1999. Agenda Setting and Legislative Success in State Legislatures: The Effects of Gender and Race. Journal of Politics 61 (3): 658–679.
Bystydzienski, Jill M. 1995. Women in Electoral Politics: Lessons from Norway. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Campbell, David, and Christina Wolbrecht. 2006. See Jane Run: Women Politicians as Role Models for Adolescents. Journal of Politics 68 (2): 233–247.
Charrad, Mounira M. 2001. States and Women’s Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, and Esther Duflo. 2004. Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India. Econometrica 72 (5): 1409–1443.
Childs, Sarah, and Julie Withey. 2004. Women Representatives Acting for Women: Sex and the Signing of Early Day Motions in the 1997 British Parliament. Political Studies 52 (3): 552–564.
Dahlerup, Drude. 2002. Using Quotas to Increase Women’s Political Representation. In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, ed. Azza Karam, 91–106. Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Einhorn, Barbara. 1991. Where Have All the Women Gone? Women and the Women’s Movement in East Central Europe. Feminist Review 39 (Autumn): 16–36.
Fallon, Kathleen M. 2008. Democracy and the Rise of Women’s Movements in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fallon, Kathleen M., Liam Swiss, and Jocelyn Viterna. 2012. Resolving the Democracy Paradox: Democratization and Women’s Legislative Representation in Developing Nations, 1975 to 2009. American Sociological Review 77 (3): 380–408.
Fodor, Eva. 2002. Smiling Women and Fighting Men: The Gender of the Communist Subject in State Socialist Hungary. Gender and Society 16 (2): 240–263.
Franceschet, Susan. 2005. Women and Politics in Chile. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Fridkin, Kim L., and Patrick J. Kenney. 2014. How the Gender of U.S. Senators Influences People’s Understanding and Engagement in Politics. Journal of Politics 76 (4): 1017–1031.
Friedman, Elisabeth J. 1998. Paradoxes of Gendered Political Opportunity in the Venezuelan Transition to Democracy. Latin American Research Review 33 (3): 87–135.
Gal, Susan, and Gail Kligman. 2000. The Politics of Gender after Socialism: A Comparative Historical Essay. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gerrity, Jessica C., Tracy Osborn, and Jeanette Morehouse Mendez. 2007. Women and Representation: A Different View of the District? Politics & Gender 3 (2): 179–200.
Goetz, Anne Marie, and Shireen Hassim (eds.). 2003. No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy Making. London: Zed Books.
Hanley, Eric. 2003. A Party of Workers or Party of Intellectuals? Recruitment into Eastern European Communist Parties, 1945–1988. Social Forces 81 (4): 1073–1105.
High-Pippert, Angela, and John Comer. 1998. Female Empowerment: The Influence of Women Representing Women. Women & Politics 19 (4): 53–66.
Htun, Mala. 2003. Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family Under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Htun, Mala, Marina Lacalle, and Juan Pablo Micozzi. 2013. Does Women’s Presence Change Legislative Behavior? Evidence from Argentina, 1983–2007. Journal of Politics in Latin America 5 (1): 95–125.
Hughes, Melanie M. 2009. Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women’s Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations. Social Problems 56 (1): 174–204.
Hughes, Melanie M., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2015. Civil War and Trajectories of Change in Women’s Political Representation in Africa, 1985–2010. Social Forces 93 (4): 1513–1540.
Hughes, Melanie, Pamela Paxton, and Mona Lena Krook. 2017. Gender Quotas for Legislatures and Corporate Boards. Annual Review of Sociology 43: 331–352.
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. 2016. Gender Quotas Database. Available at http://www.idea.int/quota.
Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2016. Women in National Parliaments: World and Regional Averages: Situation as of April 1, 2015. Available at http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/arc/world010415.htm. Accessed 14 May 2015.
Johnson, Deb with Hope Kabuchu, and Santa Vusiya Kayonga. 2003. Women in Ugandan Local Government: The Impact of Affirmative Action. Gender and Development 11 (3): 8–18.
Kenworthy, Lane, and Melissa Malami. 1999. Gender Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis. Social Forces 78 (1): 235–268.
Lerner, Gerda. 1986. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lindberg, Staffen. 2004. Women’s Empowerment and Democratization: The Effects of Electoral Systems, Participation, and Experience in Africa. Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (1): 28–53.
MacKinnon, Catharine. 1989. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mansbridge, Jane J. 1999. Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’. Journal of Politics 61 (3): 628–657.
Matland, Richard E. 2005. Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems. In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers: A Revised Edition, ed. Azza Karam, 93–111. Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Matland, Richard E., and Kathleen A. Montgomery (eds.). 2003. Women’s Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Morgan, Jana, and Melissa Buice. 2013. Latin American Attitudes Toward Women in Politics: The Influence of Elite Cues, Female Advancement, and Individual Characteristics. American Political Science Review 107 (4): 644–662.
Murray, Rainbow. 2010. Parties, Gender Quotas and Candidate Selection in France. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Murray, Rainbow, Mona Lena Krook, and Katherine A.R. Opello. 2012. Why Are Gender Quotas Adopted? Party Pragmatism and Parity in France. Political Research Quarterly 65 (3): 529–543.
Norderval, Ingunn. 1985. Party and Legislative Participation Among Scandinavian Women. Women and Politics in Western Europe 18 (4): 71–89.
Norris, Pippa. 1985. Women’s Legislative Participation in Western Europe. West European Politics 8 (4): 90–101.
Norris, Pippa. 1993. Conclusions: Comparing Legislative Recruitment. In Gender and Party Politics, ed. Joni Lovenduski and Pippa Norris, 309–330. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2001. Cultural Obstacles to Equal Representation. Journal of Democracy 12 (3): 126–140.
Opello, Katherine A.R. 2004. Explaining the Timing of the French Socialist Party’s Gender-Based Quota. French Politics, Culture & Society 22 (3): 25–50.
Pateman, Carole. 1988. The Sexual Contract. Cambridge: Polity.
Pateman, Carole. 1989. The Disorder of Women: Democracy, Feminism, and Political Theory. Cambridge: Polity.
Paxton, Pamela. 1997. Women in National Legislatures: A Cross-National Analysis. Social Science Research 26 (4): 442–464.
Paxton, Pamela, and Melanie Hughes. 2016. Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press.
Paxton, Pamela, and Melanie M. Hughes. 2015. The Increasing Effectiveness of National Gender Quotas, 1990–2010. Legislative Studies Quarterly 40 (3): 331–362.
Paxton, Pamela, and Sheri Kunovich. 2003. Women’s Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology. Social Forces 81 (5): 87–114.
Paxton, Pamela, Melanie M. Hughes, and Matthew Painter. 2010. The Difference Time Makes: Latent Growth Curve Models of Women’s Political Representation. European Journal of Political Research 49 (1): 25–52.
Phillips, Anne. 1991. Engendering Democracy. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Phillips, Anne. 1995. The Politics of Presence: The Political Representation of Gender, Ethnicity and Race. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Pitkin, Hanna F. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Reingold, Beth, and Jessica Harrell. 2010. The Impact of Descriptive Representation on Women’s Political Engagement: Does Party Matter? Political Research Quarterly 63 (2): 280–294.
Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling. World Politics 51 (July): 547–572.
Rule, Wilma. 1987. Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women’s Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies. Western Political Quarterly 40 (3): 477–498.
Saint-Germain, Michelle A., and Cynthia Chávez Metoyer. 2008. Women Legislators in Central America. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Sapiro, Virginia. 1982. Private Costs of Public Commitments or Public Costs of Private Commitments? Family Roles Versus Political Ambition. American Journal of Political Science 26 (2): 265–279.
Sater, James N. 2007. Changing Politics From Below? Women Parlimentarians in Morocco. Democratization 14 (4): 723–742.
Saxonberg, Steven. 2000. Women in East European Parliaments. Journal of Democracy 11 (2): 145–158.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2006. Still Supermadres? Gender and the Policy Priorities of Latin American Legislators. American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 570–585.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2010. Political Power and Women’s Representation in Latin America. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., and William Mishler. 2005. An Integrated Model of Women’s Representation. Journal of Politics 67 (2): 407–428.
Swers, Michele L. 1998. Are Women More Likely to Vote for Women’s Issue Bills Than Their Male Colleagues? Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (3): 435–448.
Taylor-Robinson, Michelle M., and Roseanna Michelle Heath. 2003. Do Women Legislators Have Different Policy Priorities Than Their Male Colleagues? A Critical Case Test. Women & Politics 24 (4): 77–101.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2016. Women and Power in Post-Conflict Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tripp, Aili Mari, and Alice Kang. 2008. The Global Impact of Quotas: The Fast Track to Female Representation. Comparative Political Studies 41 (3): 338–361.
United Nations. 1995. Fourth World Conference on Women Beijing Declaration. Available at http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/declar.htm. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.
Viterna, Jocelyn, and Kathleen M. Fallon. 2008. Democratization, Women’s Movements, and Gender-Equitable States: A Framework for Comparison. American Sociological Review 73 (4): 668–689.
Waylen, Georgina. 2007. Engendering Transitions: Women’s Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Williams, Melissa S. 1998. Voice, Trust, and Memory: Marginalized Groups and the Failings of Liberal Representation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wolbrecht, Christina, and David Campbell. 2007. Leading by Example: Female Members of Parliament as Political Role Models. American Journal of Political Science 51 (4): 921–939.
Yoon, Mi Yung. 2001. Democratization and Women’s Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Democratization 8 (2): 169–190.
Young, Iris M. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.