Advertisement

Living on the Margins: Producing ‘Evidence’ with ‘Feral’ Drug Users

  • Heather Fraser
  • Nik Taylor
Chapter
  • 1.2k Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Critical University Studies book series (PCU)

Abstract

Living on the margins is the theme of this fifth chapter. We extend out from universities to consider research done with those who dwell at the margins; research that by being oriented toward critical commentary on the way marginalized and/or oppressed groups and individuals are treated is itself considered marginal. For these same reasons, it also has the potential to be an embedded challenge to hegemonic tropes instituted by neoliberal discourse not least because research such as this deliberately aims to examine the impact of neoliberalism and associated austerity measures in public health and welfare. We focus on those whose marginality can be extreme, those who are stigmatized, discriminated against, and reviled, people considered deviant and likened to feral animals, through their class positioning and their experience of chronic poverty, violence, and illicit drug use. Our discussion is underpinned by data produced from a qualitative study called the Helping Alliances Project (Fraser et al. [The Stages of Change Model and the Use of Therapeutic Alliances in worker–client interactions at DASSA’s Northern and Western Clinics, 2011]), and from more recent desk research relating to the introduction of welfare austerity measures in Australia.

Keywords

Public Welfare Peer Review Process Moral Panic Profit Efficiency Drug Treatment Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahern, J., Stuber, J., & Galea, S. (2007). Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(2), 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AIHW. (2011). Alcohol and other drug treatment services in South Australia, 2008–2009: Findings from the National minimum data set, highlights. Canberra: AGPS, Department of Housing and Ageing.Google Scholar
  3. Australian Council of Social Services. (2014). Poverty in Australia report. Retrieved from http://www.acoss.org.au/poverty-2/
  4. Bagguley, P., & Mann, K. (1992). Idle thieving bastards? Scholarly representations of the ‘underclass’. Work, Employment and Society, 6(1), 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baines, D., Cunningham, I., & Fraser, H. (2011). Constrained by managerialism: Caring as participation in the voluntary social services. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(2), 329–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baines, D., & McBride, S. (2014). Orchestrating austerity: Impacts and resistance. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Beddoe, L. (2014). Feral families, troubled families: The spectre of the underclass in New Zealand. New Zealand Sociology, 29(3), 51.Google Scholar
  8. Benos, D., Kirk, K., & Hall, J. (2003). How to review a paper. Advances in Physiology, 27, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop, A. (2002). Becoming an ally: Breaking the cycle of oppression. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, L., & Strega, S. (2005). Research as resistance: Critical, indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, T., Indig, D., Allnutt, S., & Mamoon, H. (2011). Co‐occurring mental illness and substance use disorder among Australian prisoners. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(2), 188–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Call, C., & Nelson, J. (2007). Partner abuse and women’s substance problems. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 22(4), 334–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Callander, E. J., Schofield, D. J., & Shrestha, R. N. (2012). Towards a holistic understanding of poverty: a new multidimensional measure of poverty for Australia. Health Sociology Review, 21(2), 141–155.Google Scholar
  14. Charlesworth, S. (2012). Decent working conditions for care workers? The intersections of employment regulation, the funding market and gender norms. Australian Journal of Labour Law, 25(2), 107–127.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, C. (2012). Tough love: A brief cultural history of the addiction intervention. History of Psychology, 15(3), 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connell, R., Fawcett, B., & Meagher, G. (2009). Neoliberalism, new public management and the human service professions: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 331–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Considine, M., & O’Sullivan, S. (2014). Introduction: Markets and new welfare. Social Policy and Administration, 48(2), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Degenhardt, L., & Hall, W. (2003). Patterns of co-morbidity between alcohol use and other substance use in the Australian population. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22(1), 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dowling, G. R. (2014). The curious case of corporate tax avoidance: Is it socially irresponsible? Journal of Business Ethics, 124(1), 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eubanks, V. (2014, January 15). Want to predict the future of surveillance? Ask poor communities. The American Prospect, 15.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, B. R. (2005). Structuring neoliberal governance: The nonprofit sector, emerging new modes of control and the marketisation of service delivery. Policy and Society, 24(1), 73–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fabris, E. (2011). Tranquil prisons: Chemical incarceration under community treatment orders. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ferguson, I., & Lavalette, M. (2013). Crisis, austerity and the future(s) of social work in the UK. Critical and Radical Social Work, 1(1), 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fine, M. (2011). Troubling calls for evidence: A critical race, class and gender analysis of whose evidence counts. Feminism and Psychology, 22(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fitzgibbon, W. (2011). In the eye of the storm: The implications of the Munro Child Protection review for the future of probation. Probation Journal, 59(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fraser, H. (2008a). In the name of love, women’s narratives of love and abuse. Toronto: Women’s Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fraser, S. (2008b). Trauma, damage and pleasure: Rethinking problematic drug use. International Journal of Drug Policy, 19(5), 410–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galvani, S., & Hughes, N. (2010). Working with alcohol and drug use: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of social work students. British Journal of Social Work, 40(3), 946–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilgun, J. (2005). The four cornerstones of evidence-based practice in social work. Research on Social Work practice, 15(1), 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giroux, H. (2002). Neoliberalism, corporate culture, and the promise of higher education: The University as a democratic public sphere. Harvard Educational Review, 72(4), 425–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Giroux, H. (2010a). Challenging the military-industrial-academic complex after 9/11. Policy Futures in Education, 8(2), 232–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giroux, H. (2010b, October 17). Lessons from Paulo Freire. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Google Scholar
  33. Glasser, C. (2014). The radical debate: A straw man in the movement? In N. Taylor & R. Twine (Eds.), The rise of critical animal studies: From the margins to the centre (pp. 241–261). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Goffman, E. (1968). Stigma: Notes on the management of a spoiled identity. London: Clayes and Penguin.Google Scholar
  35. Gould, N. (2010). Integrating qualitative evidence in practice guideline development: Meeting the challenge of evidence-based practice for social work. Qualitative Social Work, 9(1), 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gowing, L., White, J., Ali, R., Bell, J., Brough, R., Lintzeris, N., et al. (2003). Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of methadone in the maintenance of treatment of opioid dependence. Canberra: Publications Production Unit, Australian Government of Department of Health and Ageing.Google Scholar
  37. Green, D. (2007). Risk and social work practice. Australian Social Work, 60(4), 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris, J. (1998). Scientific management, bureau-professionalism, new managerialsm: The labour process of state social work. British Journal of Social Work, 28, 839–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hartman, Y. (2005). In bed with the enemy: Some ideas on the connections between neoliberalism and the welfare state. Current Sociology, 53(1), 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Harvey, D. (2007). Neoliberalism as creative destruction. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 610(1), 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holt, N. (2003). Representation, legitimation, and autoethnography: An autoethnographic writing story. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(1), 18–28.Google Scholar
  43. International Labor Office. (2012). From precarious work to decent work. Outcome Document to the Workers’ Symposium on Policies and Regulations to Combat Precarious Employment. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---actrav/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_179787.pdf
  44. Jones, O. (2012). Chavs: The demonization of the working class. London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  45. Jubas, K. (2012). On being a new academic in the new academy: Impacts of neoliberalism on work and life of a junior faculty member. Workplace: A Journal for Academic Labor, 21, 25–35.Google Scholar
  46. Keane, H. (2013). Categorising methadone: Addiction and analgesia. International Journal of Drug Policy, 24(6), 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kemshall, H. (2010). Risk rationalities in contemporary social work policy and practice. British Journal of Social Work, 40(4), 1247–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lens, V. (2002). Public voices and public policy: Changing the societal discourse on welfare. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 29, 137–154.Google Scholar
  49. Link, B., & Phelan, J. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 363–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lloyd, C. (2010). Sinning and sinned against: The stigmatisation of problem drug users. Retrieved April 2013, from The UK Drug Policy Commission: www.ukdpc.org.uk/reports.shtm
  51. Lorenz, C. (2012). If you’re so smart, why are you under surveillance? Universities, neoliberalism, and new public management. Critical Inquiry, 38(3), 599–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martin, J., & Bjerknes, L. (1996). Legal and ethical implications of gag clauses in physician contracts. The American Journal of Medicine, 22(4), 433–476.Google Scholar
  53. McCluskey, M. (2003). Efficiency and social citizenship: Challenging the neoliberal attack on the welfare state. Indiana Law Journal, 78, 783.Google Scholar
  54. Mendes, P. (2003). Australian neoliberal think tanks and the backlash against the welfare state. Journal of Australian Political Economy, 51, 29–56.Google Scholar
  55. Mendes, P. (2008). Australia’s welfare wars revisited: The players, the politics and the ideologies. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.Google Scholar
  56. Moncrieff, J. (2006). Psychiatric drug promotion and the politics of neoliberalism. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188(4), 301–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moore, D. (2007). Criminal artefacts: Governing drugs and users. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  58. Mulia, N. (2002). Ironies in the pursuit of wellbeing: The perspectives of low-income substance-using women on service institutions. Contemporary Drug Problems, 29(4), 711–748.Google Scholar
  59. Navarro, V. (2007). Neoliberalism, globalization, and inequalities: Consequences for health and quality of life. New York: Baywood Publishers.Google Scholar
  60. Neale, J., Tompkins, C., & Sheard, L. (2008). Barriers to accessing generic health and social care services: a qualitative study of injecting drug users. Health & social care in the community, 16(2), 147–154.Google Scholar
  61. Peck, J. (2004). Geography and public policy: Constructions of neoliberalism. Progress in Human Geography, 28(3), 392–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prasad, A., & Prasad, S. (2012). Imaginative geography, neoliberal globalization, and colonial distinctions: Docile and dangerous bodies in medical transcription ‘outsourcing’. Cultural Geographies, 19(3), 349–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Radcliffe, P., & Stevens, A. (2008). Are drug treatment services only for ‘thieving junkie scumbags’? Drug users and the management of stigmatized identities. Social Science and Medicine, 67, 1065–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Raine, P. (2001). Women’s perspectives on drugs and alcohol: The vicious cycle. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  65. Reid, J. (2013). The neoliberal biopolitics of resilience and the spectre of the ecofascist state. In N. Lemay-Hebert, N. Onuf, V. Rakic, & P. Bojanic (Eds.), Semantics of statebuilding: Language, meanings and sovereignty (pp. 163–180). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Rogers, A., Pilgrim, D., Brennan, S., Sulaiman, I., Watson, G., & Chew-Graham, C. (2007). Prescribing benzodiazepines in general practice: A new view of an old problem. Health, 11(2), 181–198.Google Scholar
  67. Room, R. (2005). Stigma, social inequality and alcohol and drug use. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24(2), 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rustin, M. (2015). Psychotherapy in a neoliberal world. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 17(3), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Secombe, M. (2014, July 26). Brandis ties NGO funding to non-advocacy. The Saturday Paper. Google Scholar
  70. Sellman, D. (2010). The 10 most important things known about addiction. Addiction, 105(1), 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shdaimah, C. (2009). What does social work have to offer evidence-based practice? Ethics and Social Welfare, 3(1), 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stanford, S., & Taylor, S. (2013). Welfare dependence or enforced deprivation? A critical examination of white neoliberal welfare and risk. Australian Social Work, 66(4), 476–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tuhiwai-Smith, L. (1999). Decolonising methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  74. Wilson, S., Spies-Butcher, B., Stebbing, A., & St John, S. (2013). Wage‐earners’ welfare after economic reform: Refurbishing, retrenching or hollowing out social protection in Australia and New Zealand? Social Policy and Administration, 47(6), 623–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Witkin, S., & Harrison, W. (2001). Whose evidence for what purpose? Social Work, 46(4), 293–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wodak, A. (2001). Drug laws: War on drugs does more harm than good. British Medical Journal, 323(7317), 866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Fraser
    • 1
  • Nik Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.Flinders University of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations