Advertisement

Banal Nationalism in the Internet Age: Rethinking the Relationship Between Nations, Nationalisms and the Media

  • Lukasz SzulcEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Classic authors in nations and nationalisms studies recognize mainstream media as crucial for the construction of nations and spread of nationalisms. While the media landscape in their works is confined to traditional media, in this theoretical chapter Szulc rethinks the relationship between nations, nationalisms and the media in the digital age. Zooming in on the concept of banal nationalism, which refers to unconscious and unnoticed reproductions of both individual nations and the world as a world of nations, he examines the role of the internet for everyday reproductions of nations and nationalisms. Each section of his chapter starts with a specific point of criticism of banal nationalism—related to methodological nationalism, sociological essentialism and technological determinism—and continues by applying the criticism to the internet.

References

  1. Altman, D. (1997). Global gaze/global gays. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 3(4), 417–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Antonsich, M. (2016). The “everyday” of banal nationalism: Ordinary people’s views on Italy and Italian. Political Geography, 54, 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson, D. (2006). Catalan on the internet and the .ct and .cat campaigns. Journal of Language and Politics, 5(2), 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, U. (2000). The cosmopolitan perspective: Sociology of the second age of modernity. British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 79–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, U. (2002). The cosmopolitan society and its enemies. Theory, Culture & Society, 19(1–2), 17–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, U. (2007). The cosmopolitan condition: Why methodological nationalism fails. Theory, Culture & Society, 24(7–8), 286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Best, S. J., Chmielewski, B., & Krueger, B. S. (2005). Selective exposure to online foreign news during the conflict with Iraq. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 10(4), 52–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Billig, M. (1995). Banal nationalism. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Billig, M. (2009). Reflecting on a critical engagement with banal nationalism—Reply to Skey. The Sociological Review, 57(2), 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boczkowski, P. J. (1999). Mutual shaping of users and technologies in a national virtual community. Journal of Communication, 49(2), 86–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caiani, M., & Parenti, L. (2009). The dark side of the web: Italian right-wing extremist groups and the internet. South European Society and Politics, 14(3), 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cann, V. (2013). Constructing the nation in reality TV: A comparative study. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 27(5), 729–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chernilo, D. (2006). Social theory’s methodological nationalism: Myth and reality. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chernilo, D. (2011). The critique of methodological nationalism: Theory and history. Thesis Eleven, 106(1), 98–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costelloe, L. (2014). Discourses of sameness: Expressions of nationalism in newspaper discourse on French urban violence in 2005. Discourse & Society, 25(3), 315–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cram, L. (2001). Imagining the union: A case of banal europeanism? In H. Wallace (Ed.), Interlocking dimensions of European integration (pp. 233–246). Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Curran, J. (2012). Reinterpreting the internet. In J. Curran, N. Fenton, & D. Freedman (Eds.), Misunderstanding the internet (pp. 3–33). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Diamandaki, K. (2003). Virtual ethnicity and digital diasporas: Identity construction in cyberspace. Global Media Journal, 2(2). Available at: http://lass.purduecal.edu/cca/gmj/sp03/graduatesp03/gmj-sp03grad-diamandaki.htm. Accessed May 5, 2015.
  20. Dittmer, J., & Dodds, K. (2008). Popular geopolitics past and future: Fandom, identities and audiences. Geopolitics, 13(3), 437–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dor, D. (2004). From Englishization to imposed multilingualism: Globalization, the Internet, and the political economy of the linguistic code. Public Culture, 16(1), 97–118.Google Scholar
  22. Enteen, J. B. (2010). Virtual English: Queer internets and digital creolization. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Eriksen, T. H. (2007). Nationalism and the internet. Nations and Nationalism, 13(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fox, J., & Miller-Idriss, C. (2008). Everyday nationhood. Ethnicities, 8(4), 536–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 109–142). Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  26. Gauntlett, D. (2004). Web studies: What’s new. In D. Gauntlett & R. Horsley (Eds.), Web studies (pp. 3–23). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  27. Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  28. Georgiou, M. (2007). Transnational crossroads for media and diaspora: Three challenges for research. In O. G. Bailey, M. Georgiou, & R. Haridranath (Eds.), Transnational lives and the media: Re-imaging diaspora (pp. 11–32). Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Georgiou, M. (2012). Between strategic nostalgia and banal nomadism: Explorations of transnational subjectivity among Arab audiences. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 16(1), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Graham, M., & Khosravi, S. (2002). Reordering public and private in Iranian cyberspace: Identity, politics, and mobilization. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 9(2), 219–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hafez, K. (2007). The myth of media globalization. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  32. Halavais, A. (2000). National borders on the world wide web. New Media & Society, 2(1), 7–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hobsbawm, E. (1990). Nations and nationalism since 1780: Programme, myth, reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Honeycutt, C. (2008). Welsh without frontiers? Use of the community metaphor in Wales’s sponsored top-level domain bid. Information Society‚ 24(4), 251–261.Google Scholar
  35. Hrynyshyn, D. (2008). Globalization, nationality and commodification: The politics of the social construction of the internet. New Media & Society, 10(5), 751–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hutchinson, J. (2006). Hot and banal nationalism: The nationalization of “the masses”. In G. Delanty & K. Kumar (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of nations and nationalism (pp. 295–306). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, Y. (2011). Diasporic nationalism and the media: Asian women on the move. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 14(2), 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Livingstone, S. (2004). The challenge of changing audiences. Or, what is the audience researcher to do in the age of the internet? European Journal of Communication, 19(1), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Madianou, M. (2005). Mediating the nation: News, audiences and the politics of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Mihelj, S. (2008). National media events: From displays of unity to enactments of divisions. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 11(4), 471–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mihelj, S. (2011). Media nations: Communicating belonging and exclusion in the modern world. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mills, K. (2002). Cybernations: Identity, self-determination, democracy and the “internet effect” in the emerging information order. Global Society, 16(1), 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ng, J. (2013). The domain name registration system: Liberalization, consumer protection and growth. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Perkins, C. (2010). The banality of boundaries: Performance of the nation in a Japanese television comedy. Television & New Media, 11(5), 386–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Petersoo, P. (2007). What does “we” mean? National deixis in the media. Journal of Language and Politics, 6(3), 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Postill, J. (2011). Localizing the internet. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  47. Poster, M. (1999). National identities and communications technologies. The Information Society: An International Journal, 15(4), 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Puar, J. (2007). Terrorist assemblages: Homonationalism in queer times. Durham: Duke University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rogers, R. (2013). Digital methods. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  50. Sheyholislami, J. (2010). Identity, language, and new media: The Kurdish case. Language Policy, 9(4), 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shifman, L., Levy, H., & Thelwall, M. (2014). Internet jokes: The secret agents of globalization? Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(4), 727–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shklovski, I., & Struthers, D. M. (2010). Of states and borders on the internet: The role of domain name extensions in expressions of nationalism online in Kazakhstan. Policy & Internet, 2(4), 107–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Skey, M. (2009). The national in everyday life: A critical engagement with Michael Billig’s thesis of banal nationalism. The Sociological Review, 57(2), 331–346.Google Scholar
  54. Skey, M. (2014). The mediation of nationhood: Communicating the world as a world of nations. Communication Theory, 24(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Slavtcheva-Petkova, V. (2014). Rethinking banal nationalism: Banal Americanism, Europeanism, and the missing link between media representations and identities. International Journal of Communication, 8, 43–61.Google Scholar
  56. Soffer, O. (2013). The internet and national solidarity: A theoretical analysis. Communication Theory, 23(1), 48–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steinberg, P. E., & McDowell, S. D. (2003). Mutiny on the bandwidth: The semiotics of statehood in the internet domain name registries of Pitcairn Island and Niue. New Media & Society, 5(1), 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Szerszynski, B., Urry, J., & Myers, G. (2000). Mediating global citizenship. In J. Smith (Ed.), The daily globe: Environmental change, the public and the media (pp. 97–114). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  59. Szulc, L. (2015a). Banal nationalism and queers online: Enforcing and resisting cultural meanings of .tr. New Media & Society, 17(9), 1530–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Szulc, L. (2015b). (Trans)national queers online: An analysis of LGBTQ websites in Poland and Turkey. Doctoral dissertation. Antwerp: Universitas.Google Scholar
  61. Szulc, L. (2016). Domesticating the nation online: Banal nationalism on LGBTQ websites in Poland and Turkey. Sexualities, 19(3), 304–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Szulc, L. (2017). Transnational homosexuals in communist Poland: Cross-border flows in gay and lesbian magazines. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Waisbord, S. (1998). When the cart of media is before the horse of identity: A critique of technology-centered views on globalization. Communication Research, 25(4), 377–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yumul‚ A.‚ & Özkirimli‚ U. (2000). Reproducing the nation: “Banal nationalism” in the Turkish Press. Media‚ Culture and Society‚ 22(6)‚ 787–804.Google Scholar
  65. Zowislo-Grünewald, N., & Beitzinger, F. (2008). European cyberidentity? Political strategies and realities of dotEU. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 5(4), 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.London School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations