• Heiko Motschenbacher
Part of the Postdisciplinary Studies in Discourse book series (PSDS)


Investigating European identity formation is more important today than ever before. On the political level, European Union (EU) enlargement has so far led to the inclusion of no less than 28 European countries, with still more candidate countries (Albania [ALB] , Macedonia [MAC] , Montenegro [MNT] , Serbia [SER] , and Turkey [TUR] ) awaiting membership. Moreover, the EU member states have recently started to establish closer ties with some Eastern European non-EU countries, as the Eastern Partnership Summits with Armenia (ARM) , Azerbaijan (AZE) , Belarus (BLR) , Georgia (GEO) , Moldova (MOL) and Ukraine (UKR) have shown. These summits have played a crucial role as pressure instruments, enforcing democratic values in countries where these have not yet been fully established or where internal political opposition is still vehemently oppressed. The simplification of EU -internal travel regulations in the Schengen area and the adoption of the Euro currency by many EU member states facilitate the movement of people, capital and goods across Europe. The Treaty of Lisbon, which has been in effect since December 2009, provides EU institutions with more regulatory power than ever before.


European Union Country Minority Language European Union Member State Europeanness Formation European Union Institution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ager, Dennis. 1997. Language, community and the state. Exeter: Intellect.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Björnberg, Alf. 2007. Return to ethnicity: The cultural significance of musical change in the Eurovision Song Contest. In A Song for Europe. Popular music and politics in the Eurovision Song Contest, ed. Ivan Raykoff and Robert Deam Tobin, 13–23. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Bohlman, Philip V. 2004b. The music of European nationalism. Cultural identity and modern history. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio.Google Scholar
  5. Doğançay-Aktuna, Seran, and Zeynep Kiziltepe. 2005. English in Turkey. World Englishes 24(2): 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ehardt, Christine, Georg Vogt, and Florian Wagner (eds.). 2015. Eurovision Song Contest: Eine kleine Geschichte zwischen Körper, Geschlecht und Nation. Wien: Zaglossus.Google Scholar
  7. Fornäs, Johan. 2012. Signifying Europe. Bristol: Intellect.Google Scholar
  8. Fricker, Karen, and Milija Gluhovic (eds.). 2013. Performing the ‘New’ Europe: Identities, feelings and politics in the Eurovision Song Contest. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Fuss, Daniel, and Marita A. Grosser. 2006. What makes young Europeans feel European? Results from a cross-cultural research project. In European identity. Theoretical perspectives and empirical insights, ed. Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski and Viktoria Kaina, 209–241. Berlin: LIT.Google Scholar
  10. Georgiou, Myria, and Cornel Sandvoss (eds.). 2008. Euro visions. Culture, identity and politics in the Eurovision Song Contest [Special Issue: Popular Communication 6.3]. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Goffman, Erving. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  12. Habermas, Jürgen. 2008. Ach, Europa. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  13. Ivković, Dejan. 2013. The Eurovision Song Contest on YouTube: A corpus-based analysis of language attitudes. Language@Internet 10: 1–25. Accessed 23 Sept 2015.
  14. Krzyżanowski, Michał. 2010. The discursive construction of European identities. A multi-level approach to discourse and identity in the transforming European Union. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  15. Makoni, Sinfree, and Alastair Pennycook. 2007. Disinventing and reconstituting languages. In Disinventing and reconstituting languages, ed. Sinfree Makoni and Alastair Pennycook, 1–41. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  16. Meyer, Thomas. 2008. Europäische Identität. In Identität in Europa, ed. Thomas Meyer and Udo Vorholt, 11–30. Bochum: Projektverlag.Google Scholar
  17. Pennycook, Alastair. 2007. Global Englishes and transcultural flows. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2010. Nationalism, identity and popular culture. In Sociolinguistics and language education, ed. Nancy H. Hornberger and Sandra Lee McKay, 62–86. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  19. Pewny, Katharina, and Kati Röttger. 2015. Die gelingende Anrufung der Conchita Wurst: Performative Praktiken der Disidentifikation und Anerkennung. In Eurovision Song Contest: Eine kleine Geschichte zwischen Körper, Geschlecht und Nation, ed. Christine Ehardt, Georg Vogt, and Florian Wagner, 187–201. Wien: Zaglossus.Google Scholar
  20. Phillipson, Robert. 2003. English-only Europe? Challenging language policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Raykoff, Ivan, and Robert Deam Tobin (eds.). 2007. A song for Europe. Popular music and politics in the Eurovision Song Contest. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  22. Risse, Thomas. 2010. A community of Europeans? Transnational identities and public spheres. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Thorne, Steven L., and Dejan Ivković. 2015. Multilingual Eurovision meets plurilingual YouTube: Linguascaping discursive ontologies. In Dialogue in multilingual and multimodal communities, ed. Dale A. Koike and Carl S. Blyth, 167–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tragaki, Dafni (ed.). 2013. Empire of song: Europe and nation in the Eurovision Song Contest. Lanham: Scarecrow.Google Scholar
  25. Vänskä, Annamari. 2007. Bespectacular and over the top. On the genealogy of lesbian camp. SQS 2(2): 66–80.Google Scholar
  26. Verschik, Anna, and Jim Hlavac. 2009. Eto leto svet: Estonia’s 2008 Eurovision song as a source of folk-linguistic controversy. Monash University Linguistics Papers 6(2): 47–64.Google Scholar
  27. Weigold, Tobias. 2015. Success in English only? Der Einsatz von Sprachen beim ESC. In Eurovision Song Contest: Eine kleine Geschichte zwischen Körper, Geschlecht und Nation, ed. Christine Ehardt, Georg Vogt, and Florian Wagner, 30–45. Wien: Zaglossus.Google Scholar
  28. Wodak, Ruth. 2007a. ‘Doing Europe’. The discursive construction of European identities. In Discursive constructions of identity in European politics, ed. Richard C.M. Mole, 70–94. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heiko Motschenbacher
    • 1
  1. 1.Goethe-University Frankfurt am MainFrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations