Advertisement

“Laws for Sale:” The Domestication of Counterterrorism Policies and Its Impact in Nigeria

  • Emeka T. NjokuEmail author

Abstract

While the politics of the domestication of counter-terrorism laws and policies in Africa has been widely discussed, a critical analysis of the contents of these legislation and security frameworks, and the method of its implementation has not attracted similar attention. Through an empirical study, this chapter examines the nature of the Nigerian counter-terrorism laws, policies and structures. It argues that these laws are a reproduction of the United States and United Kingdom’s counter-terrorism frameworks, thus they glossed over the historical, political and social context of the Nigeria, which is characterize by a repressive state culture. Therefore, these counter-terrorism laws and policies provided an excuse for state agents to repress fundamental human rights and civil liberties and also credible opposition groups in guise of curbing terrorism. Consequently, these factors have rendered Nigerian counter-terrorism laws ineffective, as alienating human rights and civil liberties while countering terrorism helps to provide fertile grounds for the proliferation of terrorism.

Notes

Funding

This study was made possible by support from the Social Science Research Council’s Next Generation Social Sciences in Africa Fellowship, with funds provided by Carnegie Corporation of New York.

References

  1. Abidde, S. (2014). Sambo Dasuki’s approach to national security (2). Retrieved March 24, 2015, from http://www.punchng.com/opionion/viewpoint/sambo-dasukis-approach-to-national-security-2.
  2. Adedeji, A. (2009, 14 October). 1000 Boko Haram members in prison, awaiting trial – Mustapha, The Punch (Lagos), 14.Google Scholar
  3. Adesoji, A. (2010). The Boko Haram uprising and Islamic revivalism in Nigeria. Africa Spectrum, 45(2), 96.Google Scholar
  4. Adesoji, Abimbola O. (2011). Between Maitatsine and Boko Haram: Islamic fundamentalism and the response of the Nigerian state. Africa Today, 57(4), 98–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amnesty International. (2012). Nigeria trapped in the circle of violence. London: Amnesty International Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Amnesty International. (2014). Country briefing: Nigeria. London: Amnesty International. AMR 41/015/2014.Google Scholar
  7. Aniagoulu, A. N. (1981). The Kano disturbances tribunal of inquiry. Lagos: Federal Government Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blick, A., Choudhury, T., & Weir, S. (2007). The rules of the game. Terrorism, community and human rights. A Report for the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust by Democratic Audit, Human Rights Centre, University of Essex. Briefing Summary.Google Scholar
  9. Dakas, C. J. (2013). Nigeria’s anti-terrorism laws and practices: The imperative of mainstreaming human rights into counter-terrorism administration. A paper presented at an expert workshop organised by the Nigerian Coalition on the International Criminal Court.Google Scholar
  10. Dasuki, S. (2014). Sambo Dasuki: Nigeria’s soft approach to countering terrorism. Retrieved July 4, 2015, from http://dailypost.ng/2014/03/19/sambo-dasuki-nigerias-soft-approach-countering-terrorism/.
  11. Ezewudo, C. V. (2012) The money laundering and terrorist financing: An insight into the money laundering (prohibition) act of 2004, laws of Nigeria. An Unpublished Thesis submitted at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies School of Advanced Study University of London.Google Scholar
  12. Falola, T. (1998). Violence in Nigeria: The crisis of religious politics and secular ideologies (pp. 5–236). Rochester: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  13. Harmony Project. (2007). Al Qa’idas (mis) adventures in the horn of Africa, Combating Terrorism Center, West Point.Google Scholar
  14. Haynes, B. (2012). Counter-terrorism, “policy laundering” and the FATF: Legalising surveillance, regulating civil society Transnational Institute/Statewatch.Google Scholar
  15. Haynes, J. (1996). Religion and politics in Africa (pp. 215–219). London and New Jersey: East African Educational Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  16. Howell, J., & Lind, J. (2009). Counter-terrorism, aid and civil society: Before and after the war on terror. Brunel: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Human Rights Watch. (2013). Nigeria: Massive destruction from military raid satellite images, witness accounts raise concerns of cover-up Retrieved May 1, 2013 from http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/05/01/nigeria-massivedestruction-deaths-military-raid.
  18. Ige, A. A. (2012). A review of the legislative and institutional frameworks for combating money laundering in Nigeria. p. 102. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from www.nials-nigeria.org/journals/Adegboyega%20A.%20Ige.pdf.
  19. Inter-Governmental Action Group Against Money Laundering In West Africa-GIABA. (2014). The first follow up report, mutual evaluation, Nigeria. Retrieved March 3, 2015 from http://www.giaba.org/media/f/784_1st%20FUR%20Nigeria%20-%20English.pdf.
  20. Isichei, E. (1987). The Maitatsine risings in Nigeria, 1980–1985: A revolt of the disinherited. Journal of Religion in Africa, xvii(3), 194–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Muslim Human Rights Forum. (2008, September). Civil society responses to counterterrorism measures in Kenya. Special Brief. p. 4.Google Scholar
  22. National Human Right Commission. (2013). The Baga incident and the situation in North-East Nigeria. An interim assessment and report. Abuja: NHRC.Google Scholar
  23. Nnabueze, C. A. (2013). Justification for the declaration of state of emergency in the three states in North Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Information.Google Scholar
  24. Nssien, A. (2013). Anti-terrorism bill: Nigeria on cliff hanger Daily Independent. Retrieved July 4, 2015 from http://dailyindependentnig.com/2013/01/anti-terrorism-bill-nigeria-on-cliff-hanger/.
  25. Office of the National Security Adviser. (2014). The National Counter-Terrorism Strategy.Google Scholar
  26. Ojeifo, S., & Nzeshi, O. (2010, 12 February). Terror blacklist: US gives Nigeria four conditions, This day. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from http://www.thisdayonline.com/nview.php?id=166347.
  27. Ross, P. (2014) Where is Boko Haram now? Why Nigerian terrorist group has gone largely ignored since #BringBackOurGirls campaign. Retrieved from International Business Times. Retrieved 2 February, 2014 from http://www.ibtimes.com/where-boko-haram-now-why-nigerian-terrorist-group-has-gone-largely-ignored-1691326.
  28. Rubongoya, J. (2010). The politics of Uganda anti-terrorism law and its impact on civil society. In J. Howell & J. Lind (Eds.), Civil society under strain: Counter-terrorism policy, civil society and aid post 9/11. Bloomfield CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sampson, I. T., & Onuoha, F. (2011). “Forcing the Horse to Drink or Making it Realise its Thirst”? Understanding the enactment of anti-terrorism legislation (ATL) in Nigeria. Perspectives of Terrorism, 5(3–4), 33–49.Google Scholar
  30. Statewatch. (2001). Text of US letter from Bush with demands for EU for cooperation. Statewatch News, November 2006. Retreived March 17, 2014, from http://www.statewatch.org/news/2001/nov/06uslet.htm.
  31. Tiefenbrun, S. (2003). A semiotic approach to legal definition of terrorism. ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, 9(2), 357.Google Scholar
  32. United States Department of States. (2013). Nigerian 2013 human rights report. Retrieved March 4, 2014 from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220358.pdf.
  33. Weekly Trust. (2010). US blacklist: “Countries of Interest” sing the same tune Retrieved from www.dailytrust.com.ng/weekly/index.php/international/7684-us-blacklist-countries-of-interest-sing-the-same-tune.
  34. Whitaker, B. E. (2007). Exporting the patriotic act? Democracy and the war on terror in the third world. Third World Quarterly, 28(5), 1017–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations