Advertisement

Broadening the Scope of Moral Developmental Theory

  • Darcia Narvaez
Chapter

Abstract

Triune ethics meta-theory (TEM) differs from other theories of moral psychological development, integrating neurobiological, psychological, philosophical, and developmental literatures on moral functioning. TEM grounds itself in an evolutionary systems approach specifically Evolutionary Relational Developmental Systems Meta-Theory. TEM identifies ethical orientations that emerge from global brain states rooted in human brain evolution: self-protectionism, engagement, and imagination, respectively. Each global brain state displays different goals: self-preservation, affiliation, and reflection, respectively. Adult functioning is largely the result of dynamic interactionism during sensitive periods of development, building implicit sociomoral understandings that guide moral behavior. Alternative moral developmental pathways may ensue from psychosocial experience during development.

Keywords

Early Life Virtue Ethic Moral Development Secure Attachment Moral Sense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anscombe, G. E. M. (1958). Modern moral philosophy. Philosophy, 33, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aquino, K., Freeman, D., Reed, A., Lim, V. K. G., & Felps, W. (2009). Testing a social-cognitive model of moral behavior: The interactive influence of situations and moral identity centrality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 123–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai, H. (2012). Reclaiming our moral agency through healing: A call to moral, social, environmental activists. Journal of Moral Education, 41(3), 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balint, M. (1968). The basic fault: Therapeutic aspects of regression. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batson, C. D. (2011). Altruism in humans. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, S. M., & Ainsworth, M. D. (1972). Infant crying and maternal responsiveness. Child Development, 43, 1171–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernstein, I. S. (1991). Aggression. In R. Dubecco (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human biology (pp. 113–118). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, I. S. (2011). Social mechanisms in the control of primate aggression. In D. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. MacKinnon, S. K. Bearder, & R. M. Stumpf (Eds.), Primates in perspective (pp. 599–608). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein, I. S., & Gordon, T. (1974). The function of aggression in primate societies. American Scientist, 62, 304–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blasi, A. (1980). Bridging moral cognition and moral action: A critical review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 88(1), 1–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blasi, A. (1983). Moral cognition and moral action: A theoretical perspective. Developmental Review, 3, 178–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blasi, A. (1984). Moral identity: Its role in moral functioning. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, moral behavior, and moral development (pp. 128–139). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Bloom, P. (2013). Just babies: The origins of good and evil. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Bolin, I. (2010). Chillihuani’s culture of respect and the circle of courage. Reclaiming Children and Youth Worldwide, 18(4), 12–17.Google Scholar
  16. Bonnett, M. (2012). Environmental concern, moral education and our place in nature. Journal of Moral Education, 41(3), 285–300. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2012.691643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  18. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlo, G., Eisenberg, N., & Knight, G. P. (1992). An objective measure of adolescents’ prosocial moral reasoning. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2, 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carter, C. S. (1998). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23(8), 779–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter, C. S. (2003). Developmental consequences of oxytocin. Physiology and Behavior, 79(3), 383–397.Google Scholar
  22. Carter, C. S., Ahnert, L., Grossmann, K. E., Hrdy, S. B., Lamb, M. E., Porges, S. W., et al. (2005). Attachment and bonding: A new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.Google Scholar
  23. Champagne, F., & Meaney, M. J. (2001). Like mother, like daughter: Evidence for non-genomic transmission of parental behavior and stress responsivity. Progress in Brain Research, 133, 287–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Colby, A., & Damon, W. (1991). Some do care. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  25. Colby, A., & Damon, W. (2015). The power of ideals. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cushman, P. (1995). Constructing the self, constructing America. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  27. Darwin, C. (1871/1981). The descent of man. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Dobzhansky, T. (1973). Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. American Biology Teacher, 35(3), 125–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emde, R. N., Biringen, Z., Clyman, R., & Oppenheim, D. (1991). The moral self of infancy: Affective core and procedural knowledge. Developmental Review, 11, 251–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fairbairn, W. R. D. (1952). An object-relations theory of the personality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Feldman, R. (2007). Parent-infant synchrony: Biological foundations and developmental outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 340–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feldman, R. Gordon, H., & Zagoory-Sharon, O. (2010). The cross-generational transmission of oxytocin in humans. Hormones and Behavior, 58, 669–676.Google Scholar
  34. Feldman, R., Gordon, I., Schneiderman, I., Weisman, O., Zagoory-Sharon, O. (2010). Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 1135–1141.Google Scholar
  35. Feldman, R., Greenbaum, C. W., & Yirmiya, N. (1999). Mother–infant affect synchrony as an antecedent of the emergence of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 223–231.Google Scholar
  36. Field, T., & Reite, M. (1985). The psychobiology of attachment and separation.New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Frankena, W. K. (1973). Ethics. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  38. Frimer, J. A., & Walker, L. J. (2009). Reconciling the self and morality: An empirical model of moral centrality development. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1669–1681. doi: 10.1037/a0017418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fry, D. P. (2006). The Human Potential For Peace. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Fry, D. (Ed.). (2013). War, peace and human nature. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Gibbs, J. C. (2014). Moral development and reality: Beyond the theories of Kohlberg, Hoffman, and Haidt. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gottlieb, G. (1970). Conceptions of parental behavior. In L. R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D. S. Lehrman, & J. S. Rosenblatt (Eds.), Development and evolution of behavior (pp. 111–137). San Francisco, CA: Freeman.Google Scholar
  44. Gottlieb, G. (1997). Synthesizing nature and nurture: Prenatal roots of instinctive behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Gottlieb, G. (2002). On the epigenetic evolution of species-specific perception: The developmental manifold concept. Cognitive Development, 17, 1287–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gowdy, J. (1998). Limited wants, unlimited means: A reader on hunter-gatherer economics and the environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  47. Graham, J., & Haidt, J. (2012). Sacred values and evil adversaries: A moral foundations approach. In P. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), The social psychology of morality: Exploring the causes of good and evil. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  48. Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamlin, J. K., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P. (2007). Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature, 450, 557–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hardy, S. A. (2006). Identity, reasoning, and emotion: An empirical comparison of three sources of moral motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 207–215. doi: 10.1007/s11031-006-9034-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2005). Identity as a source of moral motivation. Human Development, 48, 232–256.Google Scholar
  52. Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2011a). Moral identity: What is it, how does it develop, and is it linked to moral action? Child Development Perspectives, 5, 212–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hardy, S. A., & Carlo, G. (2011b). Moral identity. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 495–513). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hare, R. M. (1963). Freedom and reason. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Harlow, H. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hart, D., & Fegley, S. (1995). Prosocial behavior and caring in adolescence: Relations to self-understanding and social judgment. Child Development, 66, 1346–1359. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.ep9510075267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hewlett, B. S., & Lamb, M. E. (2005). Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perspectives. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine.Google Scholar
  58. Hofer, M. (1987). Early social relationships: A psychobiologist’s view. Child Development, 58, 633–647.Google Scholar
  59. Hogarth, R. M. (2001). Educating intuition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hume, D. (1739/1888). A treatise of human nature. In L. A. Selby-Bigge (Ed.), Hume’s treatise of human nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  61. Hursthouse, R. (1999). On virtue ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Ingold, T. (1999). On the social relations of the hunter-gatherer band. In R. B. Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 399–410). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Jensen, L. A. (Ed.). (2015). Moral development in a global world: Research from a cultural-developmental perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Jordan, J. S. (2008). Wild-agency: Nested intentionalities in neuroscience: An archeology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 363(1499), 1981–1991.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jordan, J. S., & Ghin, M. (2006). (Proto-) consciousness as a contextually-emergent property of self-sustaining systems. Mind and Matter, 7(4), 45–68.Google Scholar
  66. Jordan, J. S., & Vinson, D. (2012). After nature: On bodies, consciousness, and causality. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19(5/6), 229–250.Google Scholar
  67. Kochanska, G. (2002). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: A context for the early development of conscience. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 191–195. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Knaack, A., & Rhines, H. M. (2004). Maternal parenting and children’s conscience: Early security as moderator. Child Development, 75, 1229–1242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Koenig, A. L. (1995). A longitudinal study of the roots of preschoolers’ conscience: Committed compliance and emerging internalization. Child Development, 66(6), 1752–1769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kochanska, G., Barry, R. A., Aksan, N., & Boldt, L. J. (2008). A developmental model of maternal and child contributions to disruptive conduct: The first six years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(11), 1220–1227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kochanska, G., & Thompson, R. A. (1997). The emergence and development of conscience in toddlerhood and early childhood. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values (pp. 53–77). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  72. Kohlberg, L. (1981). Essays on moral development: Vol. 1. The philosophy of moral development. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  73. Kohlberg, L. (1984). Essays on moral development: Vol. 2. The psychology of moral development. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  74. Konner, M. (2005). Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood: The !Kung and others. In B. Hewlett & M. Lamb (Eds.), Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perspectives (pp. 19–64). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  75. Konrath, S. H., Chopik, W. J., Hsing, C. K., & O’Brien, E. (2014). Changes in adult attachment styles in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review (published online 12 April 2014). doi: 10.1177/1088868314530516 Google Scholar
  76. Lanius, R. A., Vermetten, E., & Pain, C. (Eds.). (2010). The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: The hidden epidemic. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Lapsley, D. K. (1996). Moral psychology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lapsley, D. K. (2006). Moral stage theory. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 37–66). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  79. Lapsley, D. K., & Narvaez, D. (2004a). A social-cognitive view of moral character. In D. K. Lapsley & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development, self and identity (pp. 189–212). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  80. Lapsley, D. K., & Narvaez, D. (Eds.). (2004b). Moral development, self and identity. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  81. Lapsley, D. K., & Narvaez, D. (2005). Moral psychology at the crossroads. In D. Lapsley & C. Power (Eds.), Character psychology and character education (pp. 18–35). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  82. Latour, B. (2013). Modes of existence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lee, R. B., & Daly, R. (Eds.). (1999). The Cambridge encyclopedia of hunters and gatherers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Lickliter, R., & Harshaw, C. (2010). Canalization and malleability reconsidered: The developmental basis of phenotypic stability and variability. In D. E. Hood, C. T. Halpern, G. Greenberg, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of developmental science, behavior, and genetics (pp. 491–525). New York: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 434–445.Google Scholar
  86. MacLean, P. D. (1990). The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Functions. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  87. McDowell, J. (1997). Virtues and vices. In R. Crisp & M. Slote (Eds.), Virtue ethics (pp. 141–162). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Midgley, M. (1985). Evolution as a religion. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Narvaez, D. (1999). Using discourse processing methods to study moral thinking. Educational Psychology Review, 11(4), 377–394.Google Scholar
  90. Narvaez, D. (2008a). Human flourishing and moral development: Cognitive science and neurobiological perspectives on virtue development. In L. Nucci & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Handbook of moral and character education (pp. 310–327). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  91. Narvaez, D. (2008b). Triune ethics: The neurobiological roots of our multiple moralities. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 95–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Narvaez, D. (2010). Moral complexity: The fatal attraction of truthiness and the importance of mature moral functioning. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(2), 163–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Narvaez, D. (2013). The 99 Percent—Development and socialization within an evolutionary context: Growing up to become “A good and useful human being.”. In D. Fry (Ed.), War, peace and human nature: The convergence of evolutionary and cultural views (pp. 643–672). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Narvaez, D. (2014). Neurobiology and the development of human morality: Evolution, culture and wisdom. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  95. Narvaez, D. (2015). The co-construction of virtue: Epigenetics, neurobiology and development. In N. E. Snow (Ed.), Cultivating virtue (pp. 251–277). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Narvaez, D. (in press-a). Ethogenesis: Evolution, early experience and moral becoming. In J. Graham & K. Gray (Eds.), The atlas of moral psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  97. Narvaez, D. (in press-b). Evolution, early experience and Darwin’s moral sense. In R. Joyce (Ed.), Routledge handbook of evolution and philosophy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  98. Narvaez, D., Braungart-Rieker, J., Miller, L., Gettler, L., & Hastings, P. (2016). (Eds.), Contexts for young child flourishing: Evolution, family and society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Narvaez, D., & Lapsley, D. K. (2005). The psychological foundations of everyday morality and moral expertise. In D. K. Lapsley & Power, C. (Eds.), Character Psychology and Character Education (pp. 140–165). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  100. Narvaez, D., Lapsley, D. K., Hagele, S., & Lasky, B. (2006). Moral chronicity and social information processing: Tests of a social cognitive approach to the moral personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 966–985.Google Scholar
  101. Narvaez, D., & Lapsley, D.K. (Eds.) (2009). Personality, identity, and character: Explorations in moral psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Narvaez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A., & Gleason, T. (Eds.). (2013a). Evolution, early experience and human development: From research to practice and policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Narvaez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A., & Gleason, T. (2013b). The value of using an evolutionary framework for gauging children’s well-being. In D. Narvaez, J. Panksepp, A. Schore & T. Gleason (Eds.), Evolution, early experience and human development: From research to practice and policy (pp. 3–30). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Narvaez, D., Valentino, K., Fuentes, A., McKenna, J., & Gray, P. (Eds.). (2014).Ancestral landscapes in human evolution: Culture, childrearing and social wellbeing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Norton, D. (1991). Democracy and moral development: A politics of virtue. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  106. O’Neill, O. (1996). Towards justice and virtue: A constructive account of practical reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oliner, S. P., & Oliner, P. M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  108. Overton, W. F. (2013). A new paradigm for developmental science: Relationism and relational-developmental-systems. Applied Developmental Science, 17(2), 94–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Overton, W. F. (2015). Process and relational-developmental-systems. In W. F. Overton & P. C. M. Molenaar (Eds.), Theory and method: Vol. 1. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., pp. 9–62). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. R.M. Lerner, editor-in-chief.Google Scholar
  110. Overton, W. F., & Molenaar, P. C. (2015). Concepts, theory, and method in developmental science: A view of the issues. In W. F. Overton & P. C. M. Molenaar (Eds.), Theory and method: Vol. 1. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., pp. 2–8). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  111. Oyama, S. (1985). The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Oyama, S. (2000). Evolution’s eye: A systems view of the biology-culture divide. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Oyama, S., Griffiths, P. E., & Gray, R. D. (Eds.), (2001). Cycles of contingency: Developmental systems and evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  114. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Panksepp, J., & Biven, L. (2012). The archaeology of mind: Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotions. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  116. Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.Google Scholar
  117. Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  118. Plomin, R. (1989). Behavioral genetics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177(10), 645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Reimer, K., & Wade-Stein, D. (2004). Moral identity in adolescence: Self and other in semantic space. Identity, 4, 229–249. doi: 10.1207/s1532706xid0403_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rest, J. (1983). Morality. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.), J. Flavell, & E. Markman (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Cognitive development (4th ed., pp. 556-629). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  123. Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Bebeau, M. J., & Thoma, S. J. (1999). Postconventional moral thinking: A neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  124. Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rothbart, M. K., & Ahadi, S. A. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(1), 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at 3–7 years: The children’s behavior questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 1394–1408.Google Scholar
  127. Sachser, N., Hennessy, M. B., & Kaiser, S. (2011). Adaptive modulation of behavioural profiles by social stress during early phases of life and adolescence. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1518–1533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Schore, A. (1994). Affect regulation and the origins of the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  129. Schore, A. N. (2003a). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  130. Schore, A. N. (2003b). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  131. Schwartz, E. (2009). Human nature, ecological thought and education after Darwin. Albany, NY: SUNY.Google Scholar
  132. Shaw, D. (2014). Traumatic narcissism: Relational systems of subjugation. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  133. Sheldrake, R. (2012). The presence of the past: Morphic resonance and the memory of nature. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.Google Scholar
  134. Shermer, M. (2015). The moral arc: How science and reason lead humanity toward truth, justice, and freedom. New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  135. Shweder, R. (1993). Thinking through cultures: Expeditions in cultural psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Skoe, E. E. A. (2014). Measuring care-based moral development: The ethic of care interview. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 19(3), 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  138. Suttie, I. (1935/1988). The origins of love and hate. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  139. Thompson, R. (2012). Whither the preconventional child? Toward a life-span moral development theory. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 423–429.Google Scholar
  140. Trevarthen, C. (2005). “Stepping away from the mirror: Pride and shame in adventures of companionship”—Reflectison on the nature and emotional needs of infant intersubjectivity. In C. S. Carter, L. Ahnert, K. E., Grossmann, S. B. Hrdy, M. E. Lamb, S. W. Porges, & N. Sachser (Eds.). Attachment and bonding: A new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  141. Trevarthen, C., & Delafield-Butt, J. (2012). Biology of shared experience and language development: Regulations for the inter-subjective life of narratives. In M. Legerstee, D. Haley, & M. Bornstein (Eds.), The developing infant mind: Integrating biology and experience (pp. 167–199). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  142. Turiel, E. (1983). The development of social knowledge: Morality and convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Turiel, E. (2006). The development of morality (revised edition). In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  144. Turnbull, C. M. (1984). The human cycle. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  145. Turner, F. (1994). Beyond geography: The Western spirit against the wilderness. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Waddington, C. M. (1957). The strategy of the genes. London, England: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  147. Walker, L. J. (2006). Gender and morality. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 93–115). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  148. Walker, L. J., & Frimer, J. A. (2008). Being good for goodness’ sake: Transcendence in the lives of moral heroes. In F. K. Oser & W. M. M. H. Veugelers (Eds.), Getting involved: Global citizenship development and sources of moral values (pp. 309–326). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  149. Weiss, P. (1939). Principles of development. New York, NY: Holt.Google Scholar
  150. Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the limits of philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Winnicott, D. W. (1957). Mother and child. A primer of first relationships. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  152. Young, L. J., Lim, M. M., Gingrich, B., & Insel, T. R. (2001). Cellular mechanisms of social attachment. Hormones and Behavior, 40, 133–138.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darcia Narvaez
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

Personalised recommendations