Advertisement

Introduction: A State of Emergency for Crisis Communication

  • Federico M. Federici
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Translating and Interpreting book series (PTTI)

Abstract

The introduction aims to ask provocative questions. It challenges superficial usages of the term ‘emergency’ and gives an overview of the relationship between the perception of living in an interconnected and closer global society and the permanent state of emergency. By analysing the literature in translation (with some examples from interpreting) on the role of interpreters and translators in unexpected emergencies, this contribution highlights the gap between multidisciplinary research on the multilingual nature of many international emergencies and cross-disciplinary emergency research. The focus is on preparedness, response, and the discourses rotating around these concepts in order to highlight the different approaches taken by the contributions in the edited volume in discussing roles and representations of intercultural mediators when operating in the frontline of emergencies.

Keywords

Emergency Response Asylum Seeker Conflict Situation Intercultural Communication Cultural Mediation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ackerly, Gavin. 2015. Humanitarian symbiotic innovation. Theory and practice. Humanitarian Innovation Project 2015 conference. http://www.oxhip.org/resources/hip2015-conference-papers/. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  2. Apter, Emily. 2001. Balkan Babel: Translation zones, military zones. Public Culture 13(1): 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin, John L. 1962. How to do things with words? Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, Mona. 2006. Translation and conflict: A narrative account. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, Mona. 2010. Reframing conflict in translation. In Critical readings in translation studies, ed. Mona Baker, 113–129. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Bauman, Zygmunt and Carlo Bordoni. 2014. State of Crisis. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beamon, Benita M., and Stephen A. Kotleba. 2006. Inventory modelling for complex emergencies in humanitarian relief operations. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications 9(1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bielsa, Esperança. 2007. Translation in global news agencies. Target 19(1): 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braun, Sabine, and J. Taylor. 2012. Videoconference and remote interpreting in legal proceedings. Antwerp/Oxford: Intersentia. http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/805380/. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  10. Cadwell, Patrick. 2014. Translation and interpreting needs in the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Proceedings of the FIT XXth World Congress, ed. Wolfram Baur, B. Eichner, S. Kalina, N. Kessler, F. Mayer, J. Orsted, 752–60. BDÜ Fachverlag.Google Scholar
  11. Casadei, Simone, and Massimiliano Franceschetti (eds.). 2009. Il mediatore culturale in sei Paesi europei (Italia, Francia, Germania, Grecia, Regno Unito, Spagna). Ambiti di intervento, percorsi di accesso e competenze. Rome: Strumenti ISFOL.Google Scholar
  12. Communicating with Disaster Affected Communities Network. 2014. Mission statement. Available at: http://www.cdacnetwork.org/. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  13. Cronin, Michael. 2006. Translation and identity. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Cronin, Michael. 2013. Translation in the Digital Age. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Delisle, Jean, and Judith Woodsworth (eds.). 2012. Translators through history, 2nd ed. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  16. Department for International Development. 2012a. Promoting innovation and evidence-based approaches to building resilience and responding to humanitarian crises: A DFID strategy paper. London: Department for International Development. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67438/prom-innov-evi-bas-appr-build-res-resp-hum-cris.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  17. Department for International Development. 2012b. Minimum standards for embedding disaster resilience in DFID country offices. London: Department for International Development. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/191840/Minimum_standards_for_embedding_Disaster_Resilience.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  18. Dragovic-Drouet, Mila. 2007. The practice of translation and interpreting during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia (1991–1999). In Translating and interpreting conflict, ed. Myriam Salama-Carr, 29–40. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  19. Edwards, Victoria. 2002. The role of communication in peace and relief mission negotiations. Translation Journal, 6(2). http://translationjournal.net/journal/20interpr.htm. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  20. Federici, Federico M., and Dario Tessicini (eds.). 2014. Translators, interpreters, and cultural negotiators. Mediating & communicating power from the Middle Ages to the modern era. Houndmills/Basinstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  21. Footitt, Hilary, and Michael Kelly (eds.). 2012a. Languages at war. Policies and practices of language contacts in conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Footitt, Hilary, and Michael Kelly (eds.). 2012b. Languages and the military. Alliances, occupation and peace building. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Footitt, Hilary, and Simona Tobia. 2013. WarTalk. Foreign languages and the British war effort in Europe, 1940–47. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Goldfarb, Michael. 2005. Ahmad’s war, Ahmad’s peace. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Harding, Sue-Ann. 2011. Translation and the circulation of competing narratives from the wars in Chechnya: A case study from the 2004 Beslan hostage disaster. Meta: Journal des Traducteurs 56(1): 42–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hari, Daoud. 2008. The translator: A tribesman’s memoir of Darfur. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  27. Hertog, Erik, and Jan van Gucht (eds.). 2008. Status quaestionis. Questionnaire on the provision of legal interpreting and translation in the EU, AGIS project JLS/2006/AGIS/052. Antwerp/Oxford: Intersentia. https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/385604/1/Status+Quaestionis+Def.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  28. Hester, Vaughn, Aaron Shaw, and Lukas Biewald. 2010. Scalable crisis relief: Crowdsourced SMS translation and categorization with mission 4636. Proceedings of the First ACM Symposium on Computing for Development (ACM DEV’10), 1–7. New York: ACM.Google Scholar
  29. IFRC. 2013. World Disasters Report: Focus on technology and the future of humanitarian action, International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Available at: http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/134658/WDR%202013%20complete.pdf. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  30. Inghilleri, Moira. 2008. The ethical task of the translator in the geo-political arena: From Iraq to Guantánamo Bay. Translation Studies 1(2): 212–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Inghilleri, Moira. 2009. Translators in war zones: Ethics under fire in Iraq. In Globalization, political violence and translation, ed. Esperança Bielsa and Christopher Hughes, 207–221. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Inghilleri, Moira, and Sue-Ann Harding. 2010. Introduction: Translating violent conflict. In: Translation and violent conflict. Special issue of The Translator, ed. Moira Inghilleri and Sue-Ann Harding 16(2): 165–73.Google Scholar
  33. Kaigo, Muneo. 2012. Social media usage during disasters and social capital: Twitter and the Great East Japan Earthquake. Keio Communication Review 24: 19–35.Google Scholar
  34. Kaufmann, Mareile. 2013. Emergent self-organisation in emergencies: Resilience rationales in interconnected societies. Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses 1(1): 53–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kelly, Michael, and Catherine Baker. 2013. Interpreting the peace. Peace operations, conflict and language in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Kurultay, T. 2001. Depreme Karşı Toplumsal Hazırlıkta Eylem Odaklı Bilgi [Action-based knowledge in disaster preparedness]. Prooceedings of the Disaster Management and Community Seminar, Hacettepe University, June 2001. Ankara.Google Scholar
  37. Lewis, William. 2010. Haitian Creole: How to build and ship an MT engine from scratch in 4 days, 17 hours, & 30 minutes. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2010). Saint-Raphaël, 27–28 May 2010 (no page numbers).Google Scholar
  38. Lewis, William, R. Munro, and S. Vogel. 2011. Crisis MT: Developing a cookbook for MT in crisis situations. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, 501–511. Edinburgh, July 30–31.Google Scholar
  39. Liu, Z., Jacques, C., Szyniszewski, S., Guest, J., Schafer, B., Igusa, T., and J. Mitrani-Reiser, J. 2016. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation after an earthquake: Coupling human behavior with structural response. Natural Hazards Review, 17(1).Google Scholar
  40. Luhmann, Niklas. 1990. The world society as a social system. In Essays on self-reference, ed. Niklas Luhmann. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Mason, Ian. 2009. Discourse, ideology and translation. In Critical readings in translation studies, ed. Mona Baker, 83–95. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Meier, Carol. 2007. The translator’s visibility: The rights and responsibilities thereof. In Translating and interpreting conflict, ed. Myriam Salama-Carr, 253–266. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  43. Mihata, Kevin. 1997. The persistence of emergence. In Chaos, complexity and sociology. Myths, models and theories, ed. Raymond A. Eve, Sara Horsfall, and Mary E. Lee, 30–38. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Mizuno, Makiko. 2012. Community interpreting in Japan: Present state and challenges. In Translation and translation studies in the Japanese context, ed. Nana Sato-Rossberg and J. Wakabayashi, 202–221. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  45. Morrow, Nathan, N. Mock, A. Papendieck, and N. Kocmich. 2011. Independent evaluation of the Ushahidi Haiti Project [Online]. Available from: http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/independent-evaluation-ushahidi-haiti-project. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  46. Moser-Mercer, Barbara, L. Kheriche, and B. Class. 2014. Interpreting conflict: Training challenges in humanitarian field interpreting. Journal of Human Rights Practice 6(1): 140–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Munro, Robert. 2013. Crowdsourcing and the crisis-affected community: Lessons learned and looking forward from mission 4636. Journal of Information Retrieval 16(2): 210–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Naito, Minoru. 2012. Community interpreting at the time of Great East Japan Earthquake. Conference Interpretation and Translation (국제회의 통역과 번역) 14(1): 97–115.Google Scholar
  49. Palmer, Jerry. 2007. Interpreting and translation for Western media in Iraq. In Translating and interpreting conflict, ed. Myriam Salama-Carr, 13–28. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  50. Preston, John, Barry Avery, Namita Chakrabarty, and Casey Edmonds. 2011. Emergency preparedness as public pedagogy: The absent–presence of race in “preparing for emergencies”. International Journal of Lifelong Education 30(6): 749–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rafael, Vicente L. 2007. Translation in wartime. Public Culture 19(2): 239–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rafael, Vicente L. 2009. Translation in wartime. In Critical readings in translation studies, ed. Mona Baker, 383–390. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Schäffner, Christina, Tcaciuc Luciana Sabina, and Wine Tesseur. 2014. Translation practices in political institutions: A comparison of national, supranational, and non-governmental organisations. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 22(4): 493–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silvia, Tony. 2001. CNN: The origins of the 24-hour, international news cycle. In Global news: Perspectives on the Information Age. Ames: State University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sontag, Susan. 2003. Regarding the pain of others. London/New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  56. Stahuljak, Zrinka. 2000. Violent distortions: Bearing witness to the task of wartime translators. TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction 13(1): 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stahuljak, Zrinka. 2009. War, translation, transnationalism. Interpreters in and of the war (Croatia, 1991–1992). In Critical readings in translation studies, ed. Mona Baker, 391–414. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Sutherlin, Gwyneth. 2013. A voice in the crowd: Broader implications for crowdsourcing translation during crisis. Journal of Information Science 39: 397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Takeda, Kayoko. 2008. Interpreting at the Tokyo war crimes tribunal. In Doing justice to court interpreting, ed. Miriam Shlesinger and Franz Pöchhacker, 65–83. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  60. Taurecka, Rita. 2006. Securitization theory and securitization studies. Journal of International Relations and Development, 9: 53–61.Google Scholar
  61. Tesseur, Wine. 2014. Institutional multilingualism in NGOs: Amnesty International’s strategic understanding of multilingualism. Meta 59(3): 557–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Translators without Borders. 2015. Words of relief takes flight. http://translatorswithoutborders.org/twbnewsletter/09/words-of-relief-takes-flight/. Accessed 19 Oct 2015.
  63. Tyulenev, Sergey. 2014. Translation and society: An introduction. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Zelizer, Barbie, and Stuart Allan. 2010. Keywords in news and journalism studies. Maidenhead/New York: Open University Press-McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federico M. Federici
    • 1
  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations