Conception of Justice: Pre-Axial Age

  • Abbas MirakhorEmail author
  • Hossein Askari
Part of the Political Economy of Islam book series (PEoI)


Before the Axial Age (800–200 BCE), Zarathustra was the first to present a conception of justice (Gathas) anchored on a just social system with just governance as its axis. Importantly, his is also a conception within the framework of the first explicitly stated radical monotheism, emphasizing good rule with a good ruler as a man of truth. In the Gathas, truth is the first virtue. Ancient Egyptians considered that the source of justice was the divine, the creator god (Maat), who designated justice as the governing concept in the cosmos as well as among humans. While Pharaohs had absolute power, maat (truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality and justice) played a restraining influence on their authority, they were expected to guarantee justice by being benevolent to their subjects and pious toward the gods.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.La JuntaUSA
  2. 2.LeesburgUSA

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