South Africa’s Development Diplomacy and South–South Cooperation: Issues of Institutionalization and Formalization?
Following South Africa’s reemergence into the international system as a global citizen after 1994, the country has continuously aligned its foreign policy principles to the values and norms that underscored the anti-apartheid struggle; it was captured by President Mandela’s 1993 Foreign Affairs article.1 (Mandela 1993). In it, Mandela sketched out the country’s future foreign policy direction based on the principles and values of human rights, justice, democratization, respect for international law, cooperation, and peaceful coexistence. Such ideals were built around the view that post-apartheid South Africa’s national interests had to be balanced against the global realities of a rapidly changing international order, while at the same time not abandoning international friends that supported the anti-apartheid struggle. The pivot to this post-apartheid foreign policy stance was Afro-centricism in that the engagements and partnerships Pretoria would forge with multilateral institutions, and significantly with the Global North and Global South, always were to be in the broader developmental interests of the continent.