New Economy, Platform Economy and Gender

  • Seppo Poutanen
  • Anne Kovalainen
Chapter

Abstract

The new economy has developed rapidly in recent years with the groundbreaking technological innovations. In that development, the effects of the platform economy, sharing economy and gig economy on the gendered dimensions of work are growing. The chapter discusses the multilayered relationships between the old and the new economies, considers global significance of the rising platforms and gig economies and the gendered changes they push forward, and looks where the innovations are currently made in this age of digitalization. The interconnectedness of the world creates new opportunities for the local and regional economies. However, the new economy has gendered structures of its own, which affect availability of the new assets, such as venture capital. This chapter sheds light also on the unintended gender consequences of the new economy.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D., & Autor, D. (2011) Skills, tasks and technologies: implications for employment and earnings. In O. Aschenfelter & D. Card (eds.) Handbook of Labor Economics. North Holland: Elsevier. 1043–1171.Google Scholar
  2. Acker, J. (2004) Gender, capitalism and globalization. Critical Sociology, 30(1): 17–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (2005) Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Technological Change. Boston, USA, Delft, Europe: NOW Publishers ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, Z., & Deakin, S. (2014) Institutional solutions to precariousness and inequality in labour markets. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(4): 779–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agnew, J. (2001) The new global economy: time-space compression, geopolitics, and global uneven development. Journal of World-Systems Research, VII(2): 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arthur, W. B. (2007) The structure of invention. Research Policy, 36(2007): 274–287.Google Scholar
  7. Atkinson, A. (2004) Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century. LSE public lecture, Speech delivered 20th January, 2004. Old Theatre, LSE.Google Scholar
  8. Atkinson, R. D. (2012) The Innovation Economics: The Race for Global Advantage. Yale: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Atkinson, R. D., & Andes, S. (2010) The 2010 State New Economy Index. The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. Kauffman foundation. Washington: ITIF.Google Scholar
  10. Atkinson, R. D., & Nager, A. B. (2014) The 2014 State New Economy Index. The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. Washington: ITIF.Google Scholar
  11. Autio, E., Kenney, M., Mustar, P., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2014) Entrepreneurial innovation: the importance of context. Research Policy, 43(7): 1097–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baber, J. (2001) Globalization and scientific research: the emerging triple helix of state-industry-university relations in Japan and Singapore. Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 21: 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bair, J. (2010) On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production. Signs, 36(1): 203–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baldry, C., Bain, P., Taylor, P., Hyman, J., Scholarios, D., Marks, A., Watson, A., Gilbert, K., Gall, G., & Dirk, B. (2007) The Meaning of work in the New Economy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Balsamo, A. (2014) Gendering the technological imagination. In E. Waltraud & I. Horwath (eds.) Gender in Science and Technology: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Bielefeld: Transkript verlag.Google Scholar
  16. Beardi, C. (2015) Eastman Kodak Company. In J. McDonough & K. Egolf (eds.) The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Beck, U. (2000) The Brave New World of Work. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  18. Beede, D., Julian, T., Langdon, D., McKittrick, G., Khan, B., & Doms, M. (2011) Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. Washington: ESA.Google Scholar
  19. Van Beers, C., Kleinknecht, A., Ortt, R., & Vertburg, R. (2008) Introduction. In C. Van Beers, A. Kleinknecht, R. Ortt, & R. Vertburg (eds.) Determinants of Innovative Behaviour. A Firm’s Internal Practices and its External Environment. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Benioff, M. R., & Alder, C. (2009) Behind the Cloud. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Berkun, S. (2010) The Myth of Innovation. Sebastopol, CA: O´Reilly Media.Google Scholar
  22. Berner, B. (2008) Working knowledge as performance: on the practical understanding of machines. Work, employment and society, 22(2): 319–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bernhardt, A. (2014) Labor standards and the reorganization of the work: gaps in data and in research. ILRE Working paper No. 100-14. http://irle.berkeley.edu/workingpapers/100-14.pdf. Retrieved 1.9.2016.
  24. Blake, M. K., & Hanson, S. (2005) Rethinking Innovation: context and gender. Environment and Planning A, 37: 681–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (2006) The New Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  26. Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Braunerhjelm, P. (2012) Innovation and growth: a technical or entrepreneurial residual. In M. Andersson, B. Johansson, C. Carlsson, & H. Lööf (eds.) Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 286–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Breznitz, D., & Zysman, J. (2013) Introduction. In D. Breznitz & J. Zysman (eds.) The Third Globalization: Can Wealthy Nations Stay Rich in the Twenty-First Century?. Oxford, UK, New York, US: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brinkley, I. (2016) In search of the Gig Economy. The Work Foundation, August 2016. www.workfoundation.com. Retrieved 28.9.2016.
  30. Brush, C. (2014) Diana Report 2014. Babson: Babson College.Google Scholar
  31. Brush, C., Carter, N. M., Gatewood, E. J., Greene, P. G., & Hart, M. (2009) The Diana Project: women business owners and equity capital: the myths dispelled. Babson College Center for Entrepreneurship Research Paper No. 2009–11. Babson College.Google Scholar
  32. Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014) The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  33. Brynjolfsson, E., McAfee, A., & Spence, M. (2014) Labor, Capital and Ideas in the Power Law Economy. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2014.Google Scholar
  34. Business Insider (2014) Instagram’s Kevin Systrom: People keep Asking if my $1 Billion was too small. (www.businessinsider.com Jul. 19, 2014). Retrieved 1.6.2015.
  35. Caraway, T. L. (2007) Assembing Women: The Feminization of Global Manufacturing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Carayannis, E. G., Dubina, I. N., & Ilinova, A. A. (2015) Licencing in the context of entrepreneurial university: an empirical evidence and theoretical model. Journal of Knowledge Economy, 6: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carr, N. (2009) The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  38. Carrigan, C., Quinn, K., & Riskin, E. A. (2011) The gendered division of labor among STEM faculty and the effects of critical mass. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 4(3): 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Castells, M. (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Centeno, M. A., & Cohen, J. N. (2010) Global Capitalism: A Sociological Perspective. Cambridge, Malden, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  41. Clark, P. F., Stewart, J. B., & Clark, D. A. (2006) The globalization of the labour market for health-care professionals. International Labor Review, 145(3): 37–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarysse, B., Wright, M., Lockett, A., Mustar, P., & Knockaert, M. (2007) Academic spin-offs, formal technology transfer and capital raising. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4): 609–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Close, S. (2016) The political economy of creative entrepreneurship on digital platforms: case study of Etsy.com.Paper presentation at the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2016. https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/hicss/2016/5670/00/5670b901.pdf. Retrieved 11.12.2016.
  44. Cooke, P. (2002) Knowledge Economies. New York, London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cooper, M. (2003) The KodakGirl Collection. www.kodakgirl.com. Retrieved 14.7.2016.
  46. Coyle, D. (2011) The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy As If The Future Matters. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Daguerre, A. (2014) New corporate elites and the erosion of the Keynesian social compact. Work, Employment and Society, 28(2): 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Diaz Garcia, M.-C., & Welter, F. (2013) Gender identities and practices: interpreting women entrepreneurs’ narratives. International Small Business Journal, 31(4): 384–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ding, W. W., Murray, F., & Stuart, T. E. (2006) Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences. Science, 313: 665–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dolgin, A. (2012) Manifesto of the New Economy. Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dourish, P., & Bell, G. (2011) Divining a Digital Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Edgell, R. A., & Vogl, R. (2013) A theory of innovation: benefit, harm, and legal regimes. Law, Innovation and Technology, 5(1): 21–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Elzinga, A. (2004) Metaphors, models and reification in science and technology policy discourse. Science as Culture, 13(1): 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000) The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a triple helix of University-Industry-Government relations. Research Policy, 29(2): 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eurofound (2016) Annual Work Programme 2016. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/work-programme/2015/annual-work-programme-2016. Retrieved 11.8.2016.
  56. Evans, D. S., & Schmalensee, R. (2016) Matchmakers: The New Economics of Platform Business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  57. EY (2014a) Adapting and Evolving: Global Venture Capital Insights and Trends. Brussels: EYGM Ltd.Google Scholar
  58. EY (2014b) Creating Growth. Measuring Cultural and Creative Markets in the EU. Brussels: EYGM Ltd.Google Scholar
  59. EY (2015) Cultural Times. The First Global Map of Cultural and Creative Industries. Brussels: EYGM Ltd.Google Scholar
  60. Feldman, M. S. (2000) Organizational routines as a source of continuous change. Organization Science, 11(6): 611–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Felstiner, A. (2011) Working the crowd: employment and labor law in the crowdsourcing industry. Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law, 32(1): 143–203.Google Scholar
  62. Flew, T. (2007) New Media: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Florida, R. (2014) Europe in the creative age, revisited. Demos Quarterly, 1, 2014–2014. Winter. http://quarterly.demos.co.uk/article/issue-1/europe-in-the-creative-age-revisited-7/. Retrieved 11.12.2016.
  64. Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2013) The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? Oxford Martin Programme on Technology and Employment. Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford. http://www.futuretech.ox.ac.uk/sites/futuretech.ox.ac.uk/files/The_Future_of_Employment_OMS_Working_Paper_0.pdf.
  65. Gass, R. (2008) Innovation and globalisation: OECD through its looking glass. OECD Observer 270/271 December.Google Scholar
  66. Geels, F. W. (2014) Reconceptualizing the co-evolution of firms-in-industries and their environments: developing an inter-disciplinary Triple Embeddedness Framework. Research Policy, 43: 261–277.Google Scholar
  67. Goos, M., Manning, A., & Salomons, A. (2014) Explaining job polarization: routine-biased technological change and offshoring. American Economic Review, 104(8): 2509–2526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gordon, R. (2016) The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Granovetter, M. (1985) Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Greene, P. G., Brush, C. G., Hart, M. M., & Saparito, P. (2001) Patterns of venture capital funding: is gender a factor?. Venture Capital, 3(1): 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hardin, C. (2014) Finding the ‘Neo’ in Neoliberalism. Cultural Studies, 28(2): 199–221.Google Scholar
  72. Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Hathaway, I. (2015) The Gig Economy is real if you know where to look. Harward Business Review. Aug. 15, 2015.Google Scholar
  74. Hathaway, I., & Muro, M. (2016) Tracking the gig economy: new numbers. Research report. October 13, 2016. Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  75. Hewlett, S. A. (2007) Off-Ramps and On-Ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  76. Hirschfield, L. E. (2015) “I just did everything physically possible to get in there”. How men and women chemists enact masculinity differently. Social Currents, 2(4): 324–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hong, L., & Page, S. E. (2004) Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers. Papers of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS, 101(46): 16385–16389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Howard, A. (2016) Why fixing tech’s gender and racial gaps is more crucial than ever. Techrepublic.com/. http://www.techrepublic.com/article/why-fixing-techs-gender-and-racial-gaps-is-more-crucial-than-ever/. Retrieved 26.7.2016.
  79. Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  80. Jardins, J. D. (2010) The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science. New York: Feminist Press.Google Scholar
  81. Kalleberg, A. (2011) Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: The Rise of Polarized and Precarious Employment Systems in the United States, 1970s–2000s. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  82. Kanter, R. M. (2000) When a thousand flowers bloom: structural, collective and social conditions for innovation in organization. In R. Swedberg (ed.) Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 167–210.Google Scholar
  83. Katz, L. F., & Krueger, A. B. (2016) The Rise and Nature of Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States, 1995-2015. Working paper. Princeton University.Google Scholar
  84. Kenney, M., & Zysman, J. (2015) Choosing a future in the platform economy: The implications and consequences of digital platforms. Kauffman Foundation New Entrepreneurial Growth Conference, Discussion Paper. Amelia Island Florida – June 18/19, 2015. http://www.brie.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/PlatformEconomy2DistributeJune21.pdf Retrieved 21.6.2016.
  85. Kittur, A., Nickerson, J. V., Bernstein, M. S., Gerber, E. M., Shaw, A., Zimmerman, J., Lease, M., & Horton, J. J. (2013) The Future of Crowd Work. CSCW ‘13 Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Computer supported cooperative work. 1301–1318.Google Scholar
  86. Kotiranta, A., Kovalainen, A., & Rouvinen, P. (2010) Female leadership and company profitability. In C. G. Brush, A. De Bruin, E. J. Gatewood, & C. Henry (eds.) Women Entrepreneurs and the Global Environment for Growth. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 57–72.Google Scholar
  87. Laestadius, S., & Rickne, A. (2012) The theoretical foundation for Swedish innovation policy. In A. Rickne, S. Læstadius, & H. Henry Etzkowitz (eds.) Innovation Governance in an Open Economy. Oxon, Abington: Routledge. 18–50.Google Scholar
  88. Lee, N., & Rodiguez-Pose, A. (2014) Creativity, cities, and innovation. Environment and Planning A, 36(5): 1139–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Leonard, E. B. (2002) Women, Technology and Myth of the Progress. New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  90. Lewis, J. A. (2008) Governments and Global Supply Chains: Measuring Performance in a Networked World. Washington: CSIS.Google Scholar
  91. Li, E. X. (2012) Globalization 2.0. New Perspectives Quarterly, 9(1): 40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lin, C.-P. (2015) Predicating team performance in technology industry: theoretical aspects of social identity and self-regulation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 98: 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Link, A. N., Siegel, D. S., & Bozeman, B. (2007) An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4): 641–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lins, E., & Lutz, E. (2016) Bridging the gender funding gap: do female entrepreneurs have equal access to venture capital?. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 27(2/3): 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lippman, S. (2008) Rethinking risk in the new economy: age and cohort effects on unemployment and re-employment. Human Relations, 61(9): 1259–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mandl, K. D., Mandel, J. C., & Kohane, I. C. (2015) Driving innovation in health systems through an apps-based information economy. Cell Systems, 1(1): 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Manning, S. (2013) New Silicon Valleys or a new species? Commoditization of knowledge work and the rise of knowledge services clusters. Research Policy, 42(2): 379–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McDowell, L. (1997) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City. London: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McDowell, L. (2008a) Thinking through work: Complex inequalities, constructions of difference and trans-national migrants. Progress in Human Geography, 32(4): 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Meng, Y. (2016) Collaboration patterns and patenting: exploring gender distinctions. Research Policy, 45: 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (2003) Organization theory and supply chain management: an evolving research perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2): 459–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moghadam, V. M. (2000) Economic restructuring and the gender contract: a case study of Jordan. In M. H. Marchard & A. Runyan Sisson (eds.) Gender and Global restructuring. Sightings, Sites and Resistances. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. Moretti, E. (2012) The New Geography of Jobs. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  104. Mui, C., & Carroll, P. B. (2013) The New Killer Apps: How Large Companies Can Out-Innovate Start-Ups. New York: Cornerloft Press.Google Scholar
  105. Munir, K. (2012) The demise of Kodak: five reasons. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 26, 2012. Blogs.wsj.com/sources/2012/02/26/the-demise-of-kodak-five-reasons. Retrieved 22.11.2015.
  106. Murray, F., Aghion, P., Detriwapont, M., Kovel, J., & Stern, S. (2009) Of mice and academics: examining the effect of openness on innovation. NBER working paper No. 14819. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 8(1): 212–252.Google Scholar
  107. Murray, F., & Stern, S. (2014) Do formal intellectual property rights hinder the free flow of scientific knowledge? An empirical test of the anti-commons hypothesis. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 63(4): 648–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nadeem, S. (2011) Dead Ringers. How Outsourcing Is Changing the Way Indians Understand Themselves. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  109. NCWGE (2012) National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education. Title IX at 40: Working to Ensure Gender Equity in Education. Washington, DC: NCWGE.NCWIT (2016) Statistics on IT workforce. National Center for Women & Information Technology. https://www.ncwit.org/ncwit-fact-sheet. Retrieved 15.7.2016.
  110. Nelson, L. (1993) Epistemological communities. In L. Alcoff & E. Potter (eds.) Feminist Epistemologies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  111. OECD (2004) Science and technology statistics portal. Retrieved on 15th June 2015 from https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=6267.
  112. OECD (2005) Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. 3rd ed. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  113. Oesch, D., & Rodriguez Menes, J. (2011) Upgrading or polarization? Occupational change in Britain, German, Spain and Switzerland, 1990–2008. Socio-Economic Review, 9(3): 503–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Oldenziel, R. (2004) Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women and Modern Machines in America 1870–1945. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Orlikowski, W. J. (2008) Using technology and constituting structures: a practice lens for studying technology in organization. In M. S. Ackerman, C. A. Halverson, T. Erickson, & W. A. Kellogg (eds.) Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts. Theory in CSCW. London: Springer Verlag Ltd. 255–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pajarinen, M., & Rouvinen, P. (2014) Computerization Threatens One Third of Finnish Employment. ETLA Brief. Helsinki: ETLA, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.Google Scholar
  117. Perrons, D., Fagan, C., McDowell, L., Ray, K., & Ward, K. (2007) Gender Divisions and Working Time in the New Economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  118. Piketty, T. (2014) Capital in the 21st Century. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Poutanen, S., & Kovalainen, A. (2010) Critical theory. In A. Mills, G. Durepos, & E. Wiebe (eds.) Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications. 261–265.Google Scholar
  120. Poutanen, S., & Kovalainen, A. (2013) Gendering innovation process in an industrial plant – revisiting tokenism, gender and innovation. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(3): 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Poutanen, S., & Kovalainen, A. (2016) Professionalism and entrepreneurialism. In M. Dent, I. Lynn Bourgeault, J.-L. Denis, & E. Kuhlmann (eds.) The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  122. Powell, W. W., & Giannella, E. (2010) Collective invention and inventor networks. In B. H. Hall & N. Rosenberg (eds.) Handbook of the Economics of Innovation. Vol. 1. North Holland: Elsevier. 575–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Power, M. (1997) The Audit Society. Rituals of Verification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Ramirez, F. O., & Kwak, N. (2015) Women’s enrollments in STEM in higher education: cross-national trends, 1970–2010. In W. Pearson Jr., L. C. Frehill, & C. McNeely (eds.) Advancing Women in Science. New York: Springer International.Google Scholar
  125. Reed, M. I. (1996) Expert power and control in late modernity: an empirical review and theoretical synthesis. Organization Studies, 17(4): 573–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rickne, A., Laestadius, S., & Etzkowitz, H. (eds.) (2012) Innovation Governance in an Open Economy – Shaping Regional Nodes in a Globalized World. Routledge: London.Google Scholar
  127. Rider, S., Hasselberg, Y., & Waluszevski, A. (2013) Introduction. In S. Rider, Y. Hasselberg, & A. Waluszevski (eds.) Transformations in Research, Higher Education and the Academic Marke. The breakdown of scientific thought. Dortrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer.Google Scholar
  128. Ridgeway, C. (2011) Framed by Gender. How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Ridgeway, C., & Correll, S. J. (2004) Unpacking the gender system: a theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender and Society, 18(4): 510–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rip, A., & Van Der Meulen, B. J. R. (1996) The post-modern research system. Science and Public Policy, 23(6): 343–352.Google Scholar
  131. Robins, K. (1991) Tradition and translation: national culture in its global context. In J. Corner & S. Harvey (eds.) Enterprise and Heritage. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  132. Rogers, D. L. (2016) The Digital Transformation Playbook: Rethink Your Business for the Digital Age. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Rosser, S. V. (2009) The gender gap in patenting. Is technology transfer a feminist issue?. NWSA Journal, 21(2): 65–84.Google Scholar
  134. Rouvinen, P., & Kenney, M. (2015) Tervetuloa uusi työ. Talouselämä, 33(2): 35–37.Google Scholar
  135. Rubery, J. (2015) Re-regulating for inclusive labour markets. Inclusive Labour Markets, Labour Relations and Working Conditions Branch. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 65. International Labour Organization. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  136. Salaman, G. (1974) Community and Occupation: An Exploration of Work/Leisure Relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Sandberg, S. (2013) Lean In: Women, Work and the Will to lead. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  138. Sassen, S. (1996) Cities and communities in the global economy. American Behavioral Scientists, 39(5): 629–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sastre, F. (2016) Gender diversity and knowledge innovation barriers. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 27(2/3): 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Saxenian, A. (1994) Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Schiebinger, L. (2008) Getting more women into science and engineering – knowledge issues. In L. Schiebinger (ed.), Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1–21.Google Scholar
  142. Schmidt, B. (2014) Women, research and universities: excellence without gender bias. In B. Thege, S. Popescu-Willigmann, R. Pioch, & S. Badri-Höher (eds.) Paths to Career and Success for Women in Science. Findings from International Research. Wiesbaden: Springer Verlag. 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schonfield, E. (2011) The rise of the “creative” class. Techcrunch. com. 14.12.2011.at http://techcrunch.com/2011/12/14/creative-class/. Retrieved 1.5.2016.
  144. Sennett, R. (1998) The Corrosion of Character. The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  145. Sennett, R. (2006) The Culture of the New Capitalism. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Sennett, R., & Cobb, J. (1972) The Hidden Injuries of Class. New York: Knopf, 1972. Re-issued New York: Norton, 1993. Re-issued New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  147. Seppälä, T., & Mattila, J. (2016) Ubiquitous network of systems. Working paper. Berkeley Roundtable on the international economy (BRIE) and ETLA, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy. https://www.etla.fi/wp-content/uploads/BRIE_Sepp%C3%A4l%C3%A4_Mattila-2016.pdf. Retrieved 14.12.2016.
  148. Seppälä, T., Kenney, M., & Ali-Yrkko, J. (2014) Global value chains with transfer pricing: a product-level supply-chain analysis. Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, 19: 445–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. SFGate (2015) San Francisco Gate, 20 Aug.Google Scholar
  150. Shaugnessy, H. (2015) Shift. The User’s Guide to the New Economy. Boise, ID: Tru Publishing.Google Scholar
  151. Shaugnessy, H. (2016) Platform Disruption Wave. A New Theory of Disruption and the Eclipse of American Power. Boise, ID: Tru Publishing.Google Scholar
  152. Shehzad, N. (2011) Dead Ringers: How Outsourcing is Changing the Way Indians Understand Themselves. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2014) University technology transfer offices, licensing, and start-ups. In A. Link, D. Siegel, & M. Wright (eds.) The Chicago Handbook of Academic Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  154. Simard, C., & Gammal, D. L. (2012) Solutions to recruit technical women. In Anita Borg Institute Solutions Series, Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology. Palo Alto: Anita Borg Institute.Google Scholar
  155. Simmie, J., Sennett, J., Wood, P., & Hart, D. (2002) Innovation in Europe: a tale of networks, knowledge and trade in five cities. Regional Studies, 36: 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Simon, P. (2011a) The New Small. Caldwell, NJ: Motion Publishing.Google Scholar
  157. Simon, P. (2011b) The Age of the Platform. How Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google Have Redefined Business. Las Vegas: Motion Publishing.Google Scholar
  158. Solow, R. (1987) We’d better watch out. New York Times Book Review (July 12) 36.Google Scholar
  159. Statista (2015)The Statistics Portal. Venture capital - Statistics & Facts. https://www.statista.com/topics/2565/venture-capital/ Retrieved 14.3.2016.
  160. Stephan, P. E., & Levin, S. G. (2001) Exceptional contributions to US science by foreign-born and freign-educated. Population Research and Policy Review, 20(1–2): 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Stephany, A. (2015) The Business of Sharing: Making it in the New Sharing Economy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sundararajan, A. (2016) The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  163. Sweet, S., & Meiksins, P. (2012) Changing Contours of Work. Jobs and Opportunities in the New Economy. 2 ed. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  164. Taylor, P. (2010) The globalization of service work: analysing the transnational call centre value chain. In P. Thompson & C. Smith (eds.) Working Life. Renewing Labour Process Analysis. Hampshire: Palgrave. 244–268.Google Scholar
  165. The Economist (2003) The new “new economy”, Sept.11th, 2003. Special report.Google Scholar
  166. The Economist (2012) Kodak. www.theeconomist.com. Retrieved 11.5.2016.
  167. Thursfield, D. (2015) Resistance to teamworking in a UK research and development laboratory. Work Employment & Society, 29(6): 989–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tinkler, J. E., Bunker-Whittington, K., Ku, M. C., & Rees-Davies, A. (2015) Gender and venture capital decision-making: The effects of technical background and social capital on entrepreneurial evaluations. Social Science Research, 51(2015): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Truss, C., Conway, E., d’Amato, A., Kelly, G., Monks, K., Hannon, E., & Flood, P. C. (2012) Knowledge work: gender-blind or gender-biased?. Work Employment & Society, 26(5): 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Vallance, P. (2015) Design employment in UK regional economies: Industrial and occupational approaches. Local Economy, 30(6): 650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Vallas, S. (2011) Work: A critique. Boston: Polity Books.Google Scholar
  172. Webster, J. (2013) Shaping Women’s Work: Gender, Employment and Information Technology. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  173. West, N. (2000) Kodak and the Lens of Nostalgia. Charlottesville, VA: The University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
  174. Wilton, N. (2011) Do employability skills really matter in the UK graduate labour market? The case of business and management graduates. Work, Employment and society, 25(1): 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Womens VC Fund (2016) retrieved 12th January 2016 from www.womensvcfund.com.
  176. World Bank (2016) World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends. Washington: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. World Economic Forum and Boston Consulting Group (2016) Health Systems Leapfrogging in Emerging Economies: Ecosystem of Partnerships for Leapfrogging. May 2016. Retrieved 12. 10. 2016 at: https://www.bcgperspectives.com/Images/WEF_Health_Systems_Leapfrogging_Emerging_Economies_report.pdf.
  178. www.couchsurfing.com (2016). Retrieved 2.10.2016.
  179. www.etsy.com (2016). Retrieved 15.11.2016.
  180. Wyer, M., Barbercheck, M., Cookmeyer, D., Örün Öztürk, H., & Wayne, M. (2013) Introduction. In M. Wyer, M. Barbercheck, D. Cookmeyer, H. Örün Öztürk, & M. Wayne (eds.) Women, Science and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  181. Yeung, H. W.-C. (2003) Chinese Capitalism in a Global Era. London, New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Young, M., & Muller, J. (2014) From the sociology of professions to the sociology of professional knowledge. In M. Young & J. Muller (eds.) Knowledge, Expertise and the Professions. London: Routledge. 148–151.Google Scholar
  183. Zelizer, V. (1987) Morals and Markets: The Development of Life Insurance in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Ziman, J. (1994) Prometheus Bound: Science in a Dynamic Steady State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zumbrun, J., & Sussman, A. L. (2015) Proof of a ‘Gig economy’ revolution is hard to find. The Wall Street Journal. 26. 7. 2015. at https://search.proquest.com/docview/1698834883?accountid=14774. Retrieved 8.5.2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seppo Poutanen
    • 1
  • Anne Kovalainen
    • 2
  1. 1.Turku School of EconomicsUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Turku School of EconomicsUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations