Hate Crime Legislation and Violence Against Sex Workers in Ireland: Lessons in Policy and Practice

  • Graham EllisonEmail author
  • Lucy Smith
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)


Over the past two decades in the UK, there has been a considerable mainstreaming of hate crime discourse both within legal and policy circles that has stemmed in part from a number of crisis incidents (Chakraborti and Garland 2009). In particular, the report of the inquiry into the murder of the Black teenager Stephen Lawrence in 1993 and deficiencies in the subsequent police investigation went some considerable way to establishing how the police should perceive racist incidents and influenced the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 that introduced aggravated sentencing tariffs for those crimes that were influenced by the victim’s membership or presumed membership of a racial or religious group. Furthermore, the development of hate crime discourse in the UK has been heavily influenced by research within the subfield of victimology which established that crimes motivated by a victim’s particular identity often have severe psychological consequences for their feeling of self-worth and sense of ontological security (Walklate 2007a).


Harm Reduction Hate Crime Benevolent Sexism Hostile Sexism Irish Society 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawQueen’s University BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland
  2. 2.UglyMugs.ieBelfastIreland

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