Enter Turkey and Qatar
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This chapter discusses how the post-9/11 regional context paved the way for Turkey and Qatar to play more active roles. The chapter details how Turkey and Qatar pursued similar policies and employed similar tools in the 2000s and expanded their influences in the region. The chapter also discusses how Turkey and Qatar had developed stronger relations with the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its offshoot in the Palestine, Hamas, during the same period. The chapter shows that by the time the Arab Spring erupted, Turkey and Qatar had become the most active regional players in the Middle East.