Advertisement

Gender Mainstreaming and Integration in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

  • Matthew HurleyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Hurley offers an analysis of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s (NATO’s) engagement with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and the Women, Peace and Security agenda. Drawing upon NATO documents, directives and interviews with military personnel working within NATO, the chapter provides an account of NATO’s involvement with gender issues post-2007 and explores how NATO’s engagement with gender is (re)framed to align it with pre-existing NATO values and goals, namely operational effectiveness. In doing so, the chapter highlights some of the complicated and contradictory ways gender issues have emerged and are manifest within NATO.

References

  1. Benschop, Y. & Verloo, M. (2006) Sisyphus’ Sisters: Can Mainstreaming Escape the Genderedness of Organisations? Journal of Gender Studies 15 (1): 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Civil-Military Co-operation Centre of Excellence (CCOE). (2008) Gender Makes Sense: A Way to Improve Your Mission. www.nato.int/ims/2008/win/opinions/gender_booklet_ccoe_v12.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  3. Charlesworth, H. (2008) Are Women Peaceful? Reflections on the Role of Women in Peace-Building. Feminist Legal Studies 16 (3): 347–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cockburn, C. (2011) Snagged on the Contradiction: NATO, UNSC Resolution 1325 and Feminist Responses. Contribution to the Working Group on ‘Feminist Critiques of Militarization’ No to War – No to NATO Annual Meeting, Dublin, 15–17 April 2011.Google Scholar
  5. Cohn, C., Kinsella, H. & Gibbings, S. (2004) Women, Peace and Security: Resolution 1325. International Feminist Journal of Politics 6 (1): 130–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). (2007) Implementing UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. NATO Public Diplomacy Division: Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  7. Hearn, J. (2000) On the Complexity of Feminist Interventions in Organisations. Organisation 7: 609–624.Google Scholar
  8. Hurley, M. (2014) Gendering NATO: Analysing the Construction and Implementation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s Gender Perspective, PhD Dissertation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.Google Scholar
  9. Hurley, M. (2016) Talking Gender, War and Security at NATO. In Ardner, S., F. Armitage & L. Sciama, (Eds.) War and Women across Continents: Autobiographical and Biographical Experiences. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  10. Kronsell, A. (2006) Methods for Studying Silences: Gender Analysis in Institutions of Hegemonic Masculinity. In Ackerly, B., Stern, M. & True, J. (Eds.) Feminist Methodologies for International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 108–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kronsell, A. (2012) Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defence: Militarism and Peacekeeping Practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Moser, C. & Clark, F. (2001) (Eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  13. Moser, C. & Moser, A. (2005) Gender Mainstreaming Since Beijing: A Review of Success and Limitations in International Institutions. Gender and Development 13 (2): 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. NATO (2007) CWINF Guidance for NATO Gender Mainstreaming. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/issues/women_nato/cwinf_guidance.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  15. NATO (2009) Bi-SC DIRECTIVE 40-1 Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspectives in the NATO Command Structure Including Measures for Protection during Armed Conflict. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2009_09/20090924_Bi-SC_DIRECTIVE_40-1.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  16. NATO (2010a) Briefing: Women, Peace and Security. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/20120116_UNSCR_EN.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  17. NATO (2010b) Lisbon Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government Participating in the Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Lisbon. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_68828.htm?mode=pressrelease (Accessed January 2016).
  18. NATO (2010c) Comprehensive Report on the NATO/EAPC Policy on the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and Related Resolutions. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_68578.htm (Accessed January 2016).
  19. NATO (2010d) Women, Peace and Security [DVD] Brussels: NATO Public Diplomacy Division.Google Scholar
  20. NATO (2010e) NATO Review: Women & Security: UNSCR 1325 – A Happy 10 th Birthday. Available on-line at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_gpCiXKzdA (Accessed January 2016).
  21. NATO (2011) How can Gender Make a Difference to Security in Operations – Indicators. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_topics/20120308_1869-11_Gender_Brochure.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  22. NATO (2012a) BI-Strategic Command Directive 40-1 Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspective into the NATO Command Structure. Available on-line at: http://www.nato.int/issues/women_nato/2012/20120808_NU_Bi-SCD_40-11.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  23. NATO (2012b) Press Release 102: NATO names Norwegian diplomat as Special Representative for Women, Peace and Security, 28th August 2012 [Online] http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/news_89583.htm (Accessed January 2016).
  24. NATO (2012c) Gender Balance in NATO HQ – 2012 [Online] http://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_topics/20120301_gender_and_diversity-gender_2012.pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  25. NATO (2014) NATO/EAPC Policy for Implementing UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and related Resolutions [Online] http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_109830.htm?selectedLocale=en (Accessed January 2016).
  26. NATO (2015) NATO and the Women, Peace and Security Agenda: Time to Bring It Home [Online] http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/opinions_124032.htm?selectedLocale=en (Accessed January 2016).
  27. Otto, D. (2006) A Sign of ‘Weakness’? Disrupting Gender Uncertainties in the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. Michigan Journal of International Law 13: 113–175.Google Scholar
  28. Pratt, N. & Richter-Devroe, S. (2011) Critically Examining UNSCR 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schjølset, A. (2010) NATO and the Women: Exploring the Gender Gap in the Armed Forces. PRIO Paper [Online] http://file.prio.no/Publication_files/Prio/Schjolset%20(2010)%20NATO%20and%20the%20Women%20(PRIO%20Paper).pdf (Accessed January 2016).
  30. Schjølset, A. (2013) Data on Women’s Participation in NATO Forces and Operations. International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations 39 (4): 575–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shepherd, L. (2008a) Gender, Violence and Security: Discourse as Practice. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  32. Shepherd, L. (2008b) Power and Authority in the Production of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325. International Studies Quarterly 52 (2): 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shepherd, L. (2011) Sex, Security and Superhero(in)es: From 1325 to 1820 and Beyond. International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 504–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sjoberg, L. & Gentry, C. (2007) Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Women’s Violence in Global Politics. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  35. True, J. (2003) Mainstreaming Gender in Global Public Policy. International Feminist Journal of Politics 5 (3): 368–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. True, J. (2011) Feminist Problems with International Norms: Gender Mainstreaming in Global Governance. In Tickner, J. A. & Sjoberg, L. (Ed.) Feminism and International Relations: Conversations about the Past, Present and Future. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 73–88.Google Scholar
  37. True, J. & Mintrom, M. (2001) Transnational Networks and Policy Diffusion: The Case of Gender Mainstreaming. International Studies Quarterly 45: 27–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. United Nations. (2009) Protection, Participation, Prevention: Deputy Secretary-General Spells out Keys to Implementing Landmark Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (DSG/SM/456-WOM/1731) [Online] http://www.un.org/press/en/2009/dsgsm456.doc.htm (Accessed January 2016).
  39. Walby, S. (2005) Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory & Practice. Social Politics 12 (3): 321–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations