Advertisement

Introduction

  • Chiara Certomà
Chapter

Abstract

Since its very beginning in the nineteenth century, environmental thinking was characterized by the presence of different interpretations of the relationship between society and nature. The emergence of scientific environmentalism in the 1970s was welcomed as a synthesis bringing together scientific and social perspectives. As a consequence, in a few years environmental thinking reached the peak of public interest giving rise to the green diplomacy of UN summits, grassroots commitment, green political theory and green-business managerialism. However, while the progressive mainstreaming of environmental thinking attracted the most disparate supporters, it also slipped out of environmentalists’ hands, and determined its progressive de-politicization—up to a seemingly death. Is this the very fate of environmentalism?

Keywords

Scientific environmentalism green diplomacy green managerialism environmental thinking 

References

  1. Bartollomei, S. 1995. Etica e natura. Bari: Laterza.Google Scholar
  2. Berke, P.R., and Conroy, M.M. 2000. “Are We Planning for Sustainable Development?.” Journal of the American Planning Association 66:21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biermann, F. 2006. “Global Governance and the Environment.” In International Environmental Politics edited by M. Betsill, K. Hochstetler and D. Stevis, 237–261. Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Boyle, A., Redgwell, C., and Birnie, P. 2009. International Law and the Environment. 3rd edn. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bramwell, A. 1989. Ecology in Twentieth Century: A History. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. Cambridge (MA): Riverside Press.Google Scholar
  7. Castree, N. 2006. “The Future of Environmentalism.” Soundings n. 34, Nov.Google Scholar
  8. Certomà, C. 2006. Ecology, Environmentalism and System Theory. Kybernetes 35(6): 915–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Commoner, B. 1971. The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  10. De Vosab, M.G, Janssen, P.H.M., Kok, M.T.J., Frantzi, S., Dellas, E., Pattberg, P., Petersen, A.C., and Biermann, F. 2013. “Formalizing Knowledge on International Environmental Regimes: A First Step Towards Integrating Political Science in Integrated Assessments Of Global Environmental Change.” Environmental Modelling & Software 44: 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dobson, A. 1990. The Green Reader. London: Andre Deutsch.Google Scholar
  12. Donella, H., Meadows Dennis, L., Randers, J., and Behrens II, W.W. 1972. Limits to Growth. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  13. Dresner, S. 2002. The Principle of Sustainability. London: Earthscan publication Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Ehrlich, P. 1968. The Population Bomb. New York: Sierra Club/Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  15. EJOLT. 2015. “Environmental Justice Organisation, Liability and trade.” EU FP/7, http://www.ejolt.org/.
  16. Fischer, C., Parry, I., Aguilar, F., and Jawahar, P. 2005. “Conducted for the Foreign Investment Advisory Service of the World Bank Group Corporate Codes of Conduct: Is Common Environmental Content Feasible?” Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper, March 05–09.Google Scholar
  17. Gollier, C., Jullien, B., and Treich, N. 2000. “Scientific Progress and Irreversibility: An Economic Interpretation of the ‘Precautionary Principle’.” Journal of Public Economics 75 (2): 229–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gore, A. 2006. “Averting the Climate Crisis.” TED. Filmed February.Google Scholar
  19. Gore, A. 2008. The Assault of Reason. New York: Penguin Group.Google Scholar
  20. Gore, A. 2009. Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis. New York: Penguin Group.Google Scholar
  21. Grove, R.H. 1995. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kates, R., Parris, T., and Leisorowitz, A. 2005. “What Is Sustainable Development?.” Environment 47: 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Latour, B. 2005. Reassembling the Social. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Luke, T.W. 1998. “Environmentality as Green Governmentality.” In Discourses of the Environment edited by E. Darier. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Margalef, R. 1977. Ecologìa. Barcelona: Omega. Lovelock, J.E. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Martinez Alier, J. 2003. The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation. Cheltenham (UK), Northampton (MA): Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. McCormick, J. 1991. British Politics and the Environment. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  28. McCrory Martin, A., and Langvardt Kyle, T. 2012. “Cutting Out the Middle-Man: The Case for Direct Business Involvement in Environmental Justice.” Business Horizons 55: 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mebratu, D. 1998. “Sustainability and Sustainable Development: Historical and Conceptual Review.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review.18: 493–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Naess, A. 1989. Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neumayer, E. 2010. Weak Versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms, Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated.Google Scholar
  32. O’Connor, J. 1998. Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. OECD. 2012. OECD 2012 Environmental Outlook to 2050. OECD Publishing. DOI:10.1787/9789264122246-en.Google Scholar
  34. Rees, W.E. 1995. “Achieving Sustainability: Reform or Transformation?.” Journal of Planning Literature 9:343–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rees, W.E., and Wackernagel, M. 1994. “Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.” In Investing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability edited by A.M. Jansson, M. Hammer, C. Folke and R. Costanza. Washington (DC): Island Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sachs, W. 1993. “Global Ecology and the Shadow of ‘Development’.” In Global Ecology: A New Arena of Political Conflict edited by W. Sachs. Halifax (Nova Scotia): Fernwood Books.Google Scholar
  37. Schumacher, E.F. 1973. Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered. London: Blond&Briggs.Google Scholar
  38. Taylor, B. 2013. “Resistance: Do the Ends Justify the Means?.” In Is Sustainability Still Possible? edited by Worldwatch Institute (Linda Stark, ed.), State of the World 2013, 304–316, 421–423. Washington (DC): Island Press.Google Scholar
  39. TEEB. 2012. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in Business and Enterprise. Edited by J. Bishop. London and New York: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  40. Thatcher, M. 1982. On the Falklands War May 26 th 1982. Accessed June 30, 2009. http://www.totalpolitics.com/quotations/quotations.php?cat_id=179.
  41. Thatcher, M. 1988. Speech to the Royal Society, September 27th 1988. Accessed May 1, 2008. http://www.margaretthatcher.org/speeches/displaydocument.asp?docid=107346.
  42. The Nobel Peace Prize. 2007. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. Accessed October 14, 2016. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2007/.
  43. U.N. 1987. “Report of World Commission on Environment and Development: our common future.” Published as Annex to General Assembly document A/42/427.Google Scholar
  44. U.N. 1992. “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.” Conference on Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, June 3–14.Google Scholar
  45. U.N. 2002. “Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development.” Johannesburg, South Africa, August 26- September 4.Google Scholar
  46. UN Global Compact and IUCN. 2012. “A Framework for Corporate Action on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.”Google Scholar
  47. UNEP. 1972. “Declaration of the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment.” http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=97%26;articleid=1503.
  48. Winn, M., and Pogutz, S. 2013. “Business, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity: New Horizons for Management Research.” Organization & Environment 26(2): 203–29.Google Scholar
  49. Wissenburg, M.L.J. 1997. “A Taxonomy of Green Ideas.” Journal of Political Ideologies 2: 9–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Certomà
    • 1
  1. 1.Scuola Superiore Sant’AnnaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations