The European Commission and Borders: Towards a Framework for Analysis

  • Valentina Kostadinova
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)


This chapter starts with the observation that despite expectations of the diminished importance of borders, what has taken place has been a process of borders transformation. Furthermore, it identifies a novel institution, the European Commission, as an actor in this process, whose role is worth examining in greater detail. Based on these observations, the Chapter poses the study’s key research question: how does the European Commission contribute to the transformation of borders? The subsequent sections lay the groundwork for addressing this question. They present and engage with the key academic debates relevant to the study, define the key terms, classify the types of borders to be examined, explain why and how the European Commission can sway the EU policy processes and outline the study’s methodology.


European Union Policy Area European Union Policy European Union Institution Supranational Institution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adler, E. (1997). Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics. European Journal of International Relations, 3(3), 319–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert, M., Jacobson, D., & Lapid, Y. (Eds.). (2001). Identities, Borders, Orders—Rethinking International Relations Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J., Brook, C., & Cochrane, A. (1995). A Global World? Oxford: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Apap, J. (2002). Shaping Europe’s Migration Policy—New Regimes for the Employment of Third Country Nationals: A Comparison of Strategies in Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. European Journal of Migration and Law, 3(3), 309–328.Google Scholar
  5. Ashley, R. (1988). Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 17(2), 227–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bache, I., et al. (2015). Politics in the European Union (4th ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  7. Balibar, E. (1998). The Borders of Europe. In P. Cheah & B. Robinson (Eds.), Cosmopolitics. Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation (pp. 216–229). Minneapolis: University of Minnestota Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berger, P., & Luckman, T. (1967). The Social Construction of Reality. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  9. Best, E., & Christiansen, T. (2014). Regionalism in International Affairs. In J. Baylis, S. Smith, & P. Owens (Eds.), The Globalisation of World Politics—An Introduction to International Relations (6th ed., pp. 401–416). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  10. Bialasiewicz, L., Elden, S., & Pinter, J. (2005). Constitution of EU Territory. Comparative European Politics, 3(3), 333–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bilgin, P. (2004). A Return to ‘Civilisational Geopolitics’ in the Mediterranean? Changing Geopolitical Images of the European Union and Turkey in the Post-Cold War Era. Geopolitics, 9(2), 269–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blaike, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Enquiry (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, C. (1994). ‘Turtles All the Way Down’: Anti-Foundationalism, Critical Theory and International Relations. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 23(2), 213–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunet-Jailly, E. (2005). Theorizing Borders: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Geopolitics, 10(4), 633–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buffon, M., & Minghi, J. (2000). The Upper Adriatic Borderland: From Conflict to Harmony. Geojournal, 52(2), 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns, C. (2004). Codecision and the European Commission: A Study of Declining Power? Journal of European Public Policy, 11(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell, D. (1998). Writing Security—United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (2nd ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Caporaso, J. (1996). The European Union and Forms of State: Westphalian, Regulatory or Post-Modern? JCMS, 34(1), 29–52.Google Scholar
  19. Caporaso, J. (2000). Changes in the Westphalian Order: Territory, Public Authority, and Sovereignty. International Studies Review, 2(2), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carabine, J. (2001). Unmarried Motherhood 1830–1990: A Genealogical Analysis. In M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, & S. Yates (Eds.), Discourse as Data—A Guide for Analysis (pp. 267–310). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Carrera, S. (2005). What Does Free Movement Mean in Theory and Practice in an Enlarged EU? European Law Journal, 11(6), 699–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carsten, J. (2000). Neofunctionalist Theories and the Development of European Social and Labour Market Policy. JCMS, 38(1), 71–92.Google Scholar
  23. Christiansen, T., Petito, F., & Tonra, B. (2000). Fuzzy Politics around Fuzzy Borders: The European Union’s ‘Near Abroad’. Cooperation and Conflict, 35(4), 389–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Connolly, W. E. (1994). Identity/Difference—Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Coombes, D. (1970). Politics and Bureaucracy in the European Community. London: George Allan and Unwin.Google Scholar
  26. Cuttitta, P. (2006). Points and Lines: A Topography of Borders in the Global Space. Ephemera, 6(1), 27–39.Google Scholar
  27. Delanty, G., & Rumford, C. (2005). Rethinking Europe. Social Theory and the Implications of Europeanization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Diez, T. (1999). Riding the AM-Track through Europe; or, the Pitfalls of a Rationalist Journey through European Integration. Millennium Journal of International Studies, 28(2), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diez, T. (2004). Europe’s Others and the Return of Geopolitics. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 17(2), 319–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diez, T. (2006). The Paradoxes of Europe’s Borders. Comparative European Politics, 4(2/3), 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dinan, D. (2010). Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration (4th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Eagleton, T. (1996). Literary Theory—An Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  33. Eder, K. (2006). Europe’s Borders: The Narrative Construction of the Boundaries of Europe. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(2), 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. (Ed.). (2006). Debates on European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Elinas, A., & Suleiman, E. (2011). Supranationalism in a Transnational Bureaucracy: The Case of the European Commission. JCMS, 49(5), 923–947.Google Scholar
  36. EUR-Lex. (n.d.-a). The Portal to European Union Law. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from
  37. EUR-Lex. (n.d.-b). Access to European Union Law. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from
  38. European Commission. (n.d.-a). Register of Commission Documents. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from
  39. European Union. (n.d.). Newsroom. Retrieved February 9, 2016,
  40. Favell, A., & Hansen, R. (2002). Markets against Politics: Migration, EU Enlargement, and the Idea of Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(4), 581–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Forseberg, T. (2003). The Ground without Foundation? Territory as a Social Construct. Geopolitics, 8(2), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gamble, A. (1988). The Free Economy and the Strong State. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geddes, A. (2005). Europe’s Border Relationships and International Migration Relations. JCMS, 43(4), 787–806.Google Scholar
  44. George, S. (1991). Politics and Policy in the European Community (2nd ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  45. Grabbe, H. (2000). The Sharp Edges of Europe: Extending Schengen Eastwards. International Affairs, 76(3), 519–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guild, E. (1996). The Legal Framework. In D. Cesarani & M. Fulbrook (Eds.), Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe (pp. 30–53). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Haas, E. (1961). International Integration: The European and the Universal Process. International Organization, 15(3), 366–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hass, E. (1970). The Study of Regional Integration: Reflections on the Joy and Anguish of Pretheorizing. International Organization, 24(4), 607–646.Google Scholar
  49. Haas, E. (1996). Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces 1950–1957. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hansen, L. (2006). Security as Practice—Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Hix, S. (2005). The Political System of the European Union (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  52. Hix, S., & Høyland, B. (2011). The Political System of the European Union (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Howarth, D. (1995). Discourse Theory. In D. Marsh & G. Stoker (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science (pp. 115–133). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Howarth, D. (2000). Discourse. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Howarth, D., & Stavrakakis, Y. (2000). Introducing Discourse Theory and Political Analysis. In D. Howarth, A. Norval, & Y. Stavrakakis (Eds.), Discourse Theory and Political Analysis (pp. 1–23). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Huysmans, J. (2000). The European Union and the Securitization of Migration. JCMS, 38(5), 751–777.Google Scholar
  57. James, A. (1999). The Practice of Sovereign Statehood in Contemporary International Society. Political Studies, 47(3), 457–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jileva, E. (2002). Visa and Free Movement of Labour; the Uneven Imposition of the EU Acquis on the Accession States. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(4), 683–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnston, R. (2001). Out of the ‘Moribund Backwater’: Territory and Territoriality in Political Geography. Political Geography, 20(6), 677–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kassim, H., et al. (2013). The European Commission of the Twenty-First Century. Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kemp, A., & Ben-Eliezer, U. (2000). Dramatizing Sovereignty: The Construction of Territorial Dispute in the Israeli-Egyptian Border at Taba. Political Geography, 19(3), 315–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kingdon, J. (1995). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  63. Kolossov, V. (2005). Theorizing Borders—Border Studies: Changing Perspectives and Theoretical Approaches. Geopolitics, 10(4), 606–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kostadinova, V. (2009). The Commission, ENP and Construction of Borders. Geopolitics, 14(2), 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kostakoupolou, T. (2000). The ‘Protective Union’: Change and Continuity in Migration Law and Policy in Post-Amsterdam Europe. JCMS, 38(3), 497–518.Google Scholar
  66. Krasner, S. (1993). Westphalia and All That. In J. Goldstein & R. Keohane (Eds.), Ideas and Foreign Policy (pp. 235–264). London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Krasner, S. (2001). Rethinking the Sovereign State Model. Review of International Studies, 27(5), 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kratochwil, F. (1986). Of Systems, Boundaries, and Territoriality: An Inquiry into the Formation of the State System. World Politics, 39(1), 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kvist, J. (2004). Does EU Enlargement Start a Race to the Bottom? Strategic Interaction among EU Member States in Social Policy. Journal of European Social Policy, 14(3), 301–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Laclau, E. (1995). Discourse. In R. E. Goodin & P. Pettit (Eds.), Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy (pp. 431–437). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  71. Lapid, Y. (2001). Introduction: Identity, Borders, Orders: Nudging International Relations Theory in a New Direction. In M. Albert, D. Jacobson, & Y. Lapid (Eds.), Identities, Borders, Orders—Rethinking International Relations Theory (pp. 1–20). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lavenex, S. (2004). EU External Governance in ‘Wider Europe’. Journal of European Public Policy, 11(4), 680–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lequesne, C. (2000). The European Commission: A Balancing Act between Autonomy and Dependence. In K. Neureither & A. Wiener (Eds.), European Integration after Amsterdam—Institutional Dynamics and Prospects for Democracy (pp. 36–51). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lewis, J. (1998). Is the ‘Hard Bargaining’ Image of the Council Misleading? The Committee of Permanent Representatives and the Local Elections Directive. JCMS, 36(4), 479–504.Google Scholar
  75. Lindberg, L. (1963). The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Lindberg, L., & Scheingold, S. (1970). Europe’s Would-be Polity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  77. Marsh, D., & Furlong, P. (2002). A Skin not a Sweater: Ontology and Epistemology in Political Science. In D. Marsh & G. Stoker (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science (2nd ed., pp. 17–41). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  78. McCormick, J. (2011). Understanding the European Union—A Concise Introduction (5th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. Minghi, J. (1963). Boundary Studies in Political Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 53(3), 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Minghi, J. (1997). Voting and Borderland Minorities: Recent Italian Elections and the Slovene Minority in Eastern Fiuli-Venezia Giulia. GeoJournal, 43(3), 263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Monar, J. (2000). Justice and Home Affairs in a Wider Europe: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion. ESRC ‘One Europe or Several?’ Program, Working Paper 07/00. Retrieved November 3, 2007, from
  82. Monar, J. (2004). Justice and Home Affairs. JCMS, 42(1), 117–133.Google Scholar
  83. Moravcsik, A. (1991). Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and Conventional Statecraft in the European Community. International Organization, 45(1), 19–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moravcsik, A. (1993). Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach. JCMS, 31(4), 473–524.Google Scholar
  85. Moravcsik, A. (1999a). A New Statecraft? Supranational Entrepreneurs and International Cooperation. International Organization, 53(2), 267–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moravcsik, A. (1999b). The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  87. Morton, A. (2005). A Double-Reading of Gramsci: Beyond the Logic of Contingency. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 8(4), 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Müller-Graff, P. (1998). Whose Responsibility are Frontiers? In M. Anderson & E. Bort (Eds.), The Frontiers of Europe (pp. 11–21). London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  89. Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2004). Beyond the New Borders. Journal of Democracy, 15(1), 48–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Murphy, A. (1996). The Sovereign State as Political-Territorial Idea: Historical and Contemporary Considerations. In T. Biersteker & C. Weber (Eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (pp. 81–120). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nealon, J. (1993). Double Reading—Postmodernism after Deconstruction. London: Ithaca.Google Scholar
  92. Neumann, I. (1999). Uses of the Other—‘The East’ in European Identity Formation. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Newman, D. (2001). Boundaries, Borders, and Barriers: Changing Geographical Perspectives on Territorial Lines. In M. Albert, D. Jacobson, & Y. Lapid (Eds.), Identities, Borders, Orders—Rethinking International Relations Theory (pp. 137–151). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  94. Newman, D. (2003). On Borders and Power: A Theoretical Framework. Journal of Borderland Studies, 18(1), 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Newman, D., & Paasi, A. (1998). Fences and Neighbours in the Postmodern World: Boundary Narratives in Political Geography. Progress in Human Geography, 22(2), 186–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nicol, H., & Minghi, J. (2005). Continuing Relevance of Borders in Contemporary Contexts. Geopolitics, 10(4), 680–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Niemann, A., & Schmitter, P. (2009). Neofunctionalism. In T. Diez & A. Wiener (Eds.), European Integration Theory (2nd ed.) (pp. 45–66). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Nugent, N. (1995). The Leadership Capacity of the European Commission. Journal of European Public Policy, 2(4), 603–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nugent, N. (1997). At the Heart of the Union. In N. Nugent (Ed.), At the Heart of the Union—Studies of the European Commission (pp. 1–26). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nugent, N. (2001). The European Commission. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  101. Nugent, N. (2010). The Government and Politics of the European Union (7th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  102. Nugent, N., & Rhinard, M. (2015). The European Commission (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nuttall, S. (1996). The Commission: The Struggle for Legitimacy. In C. Hill (Ed.), The Actors in Europe’s Foreign Policy (pp. 130–147). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. O’Hagan, J. (2002). Conceptualizing the West in International Relations—From Spengler to Said. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ohmae, K. (1990). The Borderless World. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  106. Paasi, A. (1991). Deconstructing Regions: Notes on the Scales of Spatial Life. Environment and Planning A, 23(2), 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Paasi, A. (1998). Boundaries as Social Processes: Territoriality in the World of Flows. Geopolitics, 3(1), 69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Paasi, A. (1999). Boundaries as Social Practice and Discourse: The Finnish-Russian Border. Regional Studies, 33(7), 669–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Paasi, A. (2001). Europe as a Social Process and Discourse. European Urban and Regional Studies, 8(1), 7–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Paasi, A. (2005). Generations and the ‘Development’ of Border Studies. Geopolitics, 10(4), 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pace, M. (2004). The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and the Common Mediterranean Strategy? European Union Policy from a Discursive Perspective. Geopolitics, 9(2), 292–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pavlovaite, I. (2003). Being European by Joining Europe: Accession and Identity Politics in Lithuania. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 16(2), 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peterson, J., & Shackleton, M. (Eds.). (2002). The Institutions of the European Union. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  114. Philpott, D. (1999). Westphalia, Authority, and International Society. Political Studies, 67(3), 566–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pollack, M. (1997a). Delegation, Agency and Agenda-Setting in the European Community. International Organization, 51(1), 99–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pollack, M. (1997b). The Commission as an Agent. In N. Nugent (Ed.), At the Heart of the Union—Studies of the European Commission (pp. 109–128). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pollack, M. (1998). The Engines of Integration? Supranational Autonomy and Influence in the European Union. In W. Sandholtz & A. Stone Sweet (Eds.), European Integration and Supranational Governance (pp. 217–249). Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pollack, M. (2001). International Relations Theory and European Integration. JCMS, 39(2), 221–244.Google Scholar
  119. Prescott, J. (1978). Boundaries and Frontiers. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  120. Puchala, D. (1972). Of Blind Men, Elephants and International Integration. JCMS, 10(3), 267–284.Google Scholar
  121. Rapid Press Release. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2016, from
  122. Risse-Kappen, T. (1996). Exploring the Nature of the Beast: International Relations Theory and Comparative Policy Analysis Meet the European Union. JCMS, 34(1), 53–80.Google Scholar
  123. Rosamond, B. (2005). The Uniting of Europe and the Foundation of EU Studies: Revisiting the Neofunctionalism of Ernst B. Haas. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(2), 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rudolph, C. (2005). Sovereignty and Territorial Borders in a Global Age. International Studies Review, 7(7), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ruggie, J. G. (1983). Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Towards a Neorealist Syntheses. World Politics, 35(2), 261–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ruggie, J. G. (1993). Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations. International Organization, 47(1), 139–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rumford, C. (2006). Theorizing Borders. European Journal of Social Theory, 9(2), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rumford, C. (Ed.). (2008). Special Issue of Space and Polity, 12(1).Google Scholar
  129. Rumley, D., & Minghi, J. (Eds.). (1991). The Geography of Border Landscapes. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Sandholtz, W. (1993). Choosing Union: Monetary Politics and Maastricht. International Organization, 47(1), 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sandholtz, W. (1996). Membership Matters: Limits of the Functional Approach to European Institutions. JCMS, 34(3), 403–429.Google Scholar
  132. Sarup, M. (1993). An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and Post-Modernism (2nd ed.). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  133. Schmidt, S. (2000). Only an Agenda Setter?: The European Commission’s Power over the Council of Ministers. European Union Politics, 1(1), 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schmidt, S. (2004). The European Commission’s Powers in Shaping European Policies. In D. Dimitrakopoulous (Ed.), The Changing European Commission (pp. 105–121). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Schmitter, P. (1969). Three Neo-Functional Hypotheses about International Integration. International Organization, 23(1), 161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schmitter, P. (1998). Imagining the Future of the Euro-Polity with the Help of New Concepts. In G. Marks, F. Scharpf, P. Schmitter, & W. Streeck (Eds.), Governance in the European Union (pp. 121–150). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  137. Schmitter, P. (2004). Neo-Neofunctionalism. In T. Diez & A. Wiener (Eds.), European Integration Theory (pp. 45–74). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  138. Smith, M. (1996). The European Union and a Changing Europe: Establishing the Boundaries of Order. JCMS, 34(1), 5–28.Google Scholar
  139. Smith, S. (1999). Positivism and Beyond. In S. Smith, K. Booth, & M. Zalewski (Eds.), International Theory: Positivism and Beyond (pp. 11–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Steans, J., et al. (2010). An Introduction to International Relations: Perspectives and Themes (3rd ed.). Harrow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  141. Sztompka, P. (2004). From East Europeans to Europeans: Shifting Identities and Boundaries in the New Europe. European Review, 12(4), 481–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Taylor, P. (1994). The State as Container: Territoriality in the Modern World System. Progress in Human Geography, 18(2), 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Thompson, R., et al. (2004). Actor Alignments in European Union Decision Making. European Journal of Political Research, 43(2), 237–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tonra, B., & Christiansen, T. (Eds.). (2004). Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Tranholm-Mikkelsen, J. (1991). Neo-Functionalism: Obstinate or Obsolete? A Reappraisal in the Light of the New Dynamism of the EC. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 20(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. van Houtum, H. (2005). The Geopolitics of Borders and Boundaries. Geopolitics, 10(4), 672–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Walker, R. B. J. (1995). Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Wallace, W. (1999a). Europe after the Cold War: Interstate Order or Post-Sovereign Regional System? Review of International Studies, 25(5), 201–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wallace, W. (1999b). The Sharing of Sovereignty: The European Paradox. Political Studies, 47(3), 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wetherell, M., Taylor, S., & Yates, S. (Eds.). (2001). Discourse as Data—A Guide for Analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  151. Williams, J. (2003). Territorial Borders, International Ethics and Geography: Do Good Fences still Make Good Neighbours? Geopolitics, 8(2), 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (Eds.). (2001). Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  153. Wonka, A. (2015). The European Commission. In J. Richardson & S. Mazey (Eds.), European Union: Power and Policy-making (pp. 83–105). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  154. Wouters, J., & Naert, F. (n.d.). The European Union and ‘September 11’. Retrieved September 20, 2004, from
  155. Zielonka, J. (Ed.). (2002). Europe Unbound—Enlarging and Reshaping the Boundaries of the European Union. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  156. Zielonka, J. (2006). Europe as an Empire—The Nature of the Enlarged European Union. Oxford: OUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zielonka, Z. (2001). How New Enlarged Borders will Reshape the European Union. JCMS, 39(3), 507–536.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Kostadinova
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics and International StudiesUniversity of BuckinghamBuckinghamUK

Personalised recommendations