Football Fans: Representations, Motivations and Place

  • Henrik Linden
  • Sara Linden


This chapter takes a closer look at various aspects of sport fandom, such as motivations, representations and digital media, with particular emphasis on football and how the commercialisation of the football industry has affected the relationship between fans and their clubs. The end of the chapter will be devoted to West Ham United fans and sense of place and belonging, due to the club’s move to a new stadium in 2016.


Football Club Ticket Price Premier League Black Player Home Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andersson, Torbjörn, and Aage Radmann. 1998. Football Fans in Scandinavia, 1900–97. In Fanatics! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football, ed. Adam Brown, 141–157. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Bainbridge, Jane. 2011. Time for a reality check—An interview with Karren Brady. Fresh Business Thinking, October 27.
  3. Bale, John. 2000. The Changing Face of Football. In The Future of Football: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century, ed. Jon Garland, Dominic Malcolm, and Mike Rowe. London: F. Cass.Google Scholar
  4. Baudrilliard, Jean. 1998. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. BBC. 2016. Leicester City parade: Thousands gather to celebrate Premier League title win. BBC.
  6. BBC Radio 5 Live. 2016. 5 Live Sport. BBC Radio 5 Live, May 2.Google Scholar
  7. Berg, Kelly A., and Alison Harthcock. 2008. “Let the Domination Begin”: Sport Fans’ Construction of Identity in Online Message Boards. In Sports Mania: Essays on Fandom and the Media in the 21st Century, ed. Lawrence Hugenberg, Paul Haridakis, and Adam Earnheardt. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  8. Boorstin, Daniel J. 1992 [1961]. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  9. Bridgewater, Susan. 2010. Football Brands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooking, Trevor, and Michael Hart. 2014. My Life in Football. London: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, Adam. 1998. United We Stand: Some Problems With Fan Democracy. In Fanatics! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football, ed. Adam Brown, 50–68. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Calvin, Michael. 2016. Liverpool fan protest: It is time ‘customers’ fight back over ticket prices and be treated as fans again. The Independent, February 6.
  13. Collier, Hatty. 2016. Sadiq Khan orders inquiry into Olympic Stadium as cost of converting it for West Ham soars by £51m. Evening Standard, November 1.
  14. Conn, David. 2016. Hillsborough inquests jury rules 96 victims were unlawfully killed. The Guardian, April 26.
  15. Crosset, Ted, and Becky Beal. 1997. The use of “subculture” and “subworld” in ethnographic works on sport: A discussion of definitional distinctions. Sociology of Sport Journal 14(1): 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, Fiona, Cleopatra Veloutsou, and Andrew Costa. 2006. Investigating the influence of a joint sponsorship of rival teams on supporter attitudes and brand preferences. Journal of Marketing Communications 12(1): 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Debord, Guy. 1995 [1967]. The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  18. Dunn, Carrie. 2014. Female Football Fans: Community, Identity and Sexism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eco, Umberto. 1986. Travels in Hyperreality: Essays. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  20. Eitzen, D. Stanley (ed). 2015. Sport in Contemporary Society : An Anthology, 10th edn. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, Graeme. 2001. Cultural Planning, an Urban Renaissance? London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finn, Gerry P. T., and Richard Giulianotti. 1998. Scottish Fans, Not English Hooligans! Scots, Scottishness and Scottish football. In Fanatics! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football, ed. Adam Brown. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Free, Marcus. 1998. “Angels” with Drunken Faces? Travelling Republic of Ireland Supporters and the Construction of Irish Migrant Identity in England. In FANATICS! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football, ed. Adam Brown. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Fuggetta, Rob. 2012. Brand Advocates: Turning Enthusiastic Customers into a Powerful Marketing Force. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Gau, Li-Shiue, and Jeffrey D. James. 2013. A ten-value-type framework associated with spectator sports: A qualitative inquiry. Sage Open April–June: 1–13. doi:  10.1177/2158244013485580
  26. Gibson, Owen. 2016a. West Ham know Stratford makes sense but Upton Park goodbye will be hard. The Guardian, May 6.
  27. ———. 2016b. West ham Olympic stadium deal: LLDC ordered to publish contract details. The Guardian, 11 April.
  28. Gibson, Sean. 2016c. Liverpool owners FSG brag about “transforming fans into customers” on website. The Telegraph, February 4.
  29. Gilmore, James H., and B. Joseph Pine II. 2007. Authenticity: What Consumers Really Want. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  30. Grohs, Reinhardt, Heribert Reisinger, and David M. Woisetschläger. 2015. Attenuation of negative sponsorship effects in the context of rival sports teams’ fans. European Journal of Marketing 49(11/12): 1880–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hill, Vernon. 2012. Fans Not Customers: How to Create Growth Companies in a No Growth World. London: Profile.Google Scholar
  32. Hills, David. 2016. Said & done. The Observer [sport supplement], April 24.Google Scholar
  33. Hognestad, Hans K. 2012. Split loyalties: Football is a community business. Soccer & Society 13(3): 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hugenberg, Lawrence, Paul Haridakis, and Adam Earnheardt (ed). 2008. Sports Mania: Essays on Fandom and the Media in the 21st Century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
  35. Jenkins, Henry. 2007. Afterword: The Future of Fandom. In Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World, ed. Jonathan Gray, Cornel Sandvoss and C. Lee Harrington. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Keogh, Frank. 2015. Olympic stadium: Barry Hearn wants West Ham deal made public. BBC Sport, June 23.
  37. Kim, Nam-Su, and Laurence Chalip. 2004. Why travel to the FIFA World Cup? Effects of motive, background, interest and constraints. Tourism Management 25(6): 695–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Knighton, Aarick. 2015. Generation-i: The Millennial Mindset. Syracuse, NY: Late Nights Early Mornings.Google Scholar
  39. Kuper, Simon, and Stefan Szymanski. 2014. Soccernomics: Why England Loses, Why Germany and Brazil Win, and Why the U.S., Japan, Australia, Turkey and Even India Are Destined to Become the Kings of the World’s Most Popular Sport. New York: Nation Books.Google Scholar
  40. Leicester Mercury. 2016. Sunderland 0–2 Leicester City VERDICT: If Foxes win title, everyone will hail people’s champions. Leicester Mercury, April 11.
  41. Maddox, Teena. 2014. Stadiums race to digitize: How sports teams are scrambling to keep Millennials coming to games. TechRepublic, April 12.
  42. Marwick, Alice E. 2013. Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity and Branding in the Social Media Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. McColl, Graham. 2006. ‘78: How a Nation Lost the World Cup. London: Headline.Google Scholar
  44. McDonald, Tony. 2007. West Ham in My Day, vol 1. London: Football World.Google Scholar
  45. Meire, Katrien. 2016. Club Statement: Charlton Athletic CEO Katrien Meire on the club’s relegation. Charlton Athletic, April 19.
  46. O’Shaughnessy, John. 2013. Consumer Behaviour: Perspectives, Findings and Explanations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Olley, James. 2016. Arsenal fan protest: Arsene Wenger urges supporters not to take part in Emirates walkout. Evening Standard, February 12.
  48. Peitersen, Birger, and Bente Holm Skov. 1991. Herlige Tider: Historien om de Danske Roligans [Great Times: The History of the Danish Roligans]. Copenhagen: Komma Sport.Google Scholar
  49. Reade, Brian. 1989. Hillsborough: Dead—Because they didn’t count. Liverpool Daily Post, April 17.
  50. Sandvoss, Cornel. 2005. Fans: The Mirror of Consumption. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  51. Smyth, Rob, Lars Eriksen, and Mike Gibbons. 2014. Danish Dynamite: The Story of Football’s Greatest Cult Team. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  52. Snelgrove, Ryan, Marijke Taks, Laurence Chalip, and B. Christine Green. 2008. How visitors and locals at a sport event differ in motives and identity. Journal of Sport and Tourism 13(3): 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sun, The. 1989. The truth [frontpage]. The Sun, April 19.Google Scholar
  54. Sun, The. 2016. The Sun says: Justice at last. The Sun, April 27.
  55. Tapp, Allan, and Jeff Clowes. 2002. From “carefree casuals” to “professional wanderers”: Segmentation possibilities for football supporters. European Journal of Marketing 36(11/12): 1248–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, Lord Justice. 1989. The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster, 15 April 1989, Interim Report. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1990. The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster, 15 April 1989, Final Report. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  58. This is Anfield. 2016. Liverpool owners change “transforming fans into customers” tagline. This is Anfield, February 4.
  59. Twenge, Jean M., and W. Keith Campbell. 2009. The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  60. Visit Britain. 2015. Inbound Football Tourism Research. Visit Britan.
  61. Walker, Paul. 2016. Robbed and it hurts like hell. KUMB, April 20.
  62. Wann, Daniel. 1995. Preliminary validation of the sport fan motivation scale. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 19(4): 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Web Summit. 2015. Breaking out of the second tier—Katrien Meire, Bill Peterson & Cathal Dervan [Web Summit panel discussion, Dublin, November 2015]. YouTube, December 7.
  64. Wheaton, Belinda. 2007. After sport culture: Rethinking sport and post-subcultural theory. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 31: 283–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. WHUFC. 2016a. New Stadium: About, January 8.
  66. Williams, Brian. 2015. Nearly Reach the Sky: A Farewell to Upton Park. London: Biteback.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Linden
    • 1
  • Sara Linden
    • 2
  1. 1.University of East LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Goldsmiths, University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations