Women and Athletes with High Support Needs in Paralympic Sport: Progress and Further Opportunities for Underrepresented Populations
Over the past half-century, the evolution of Paralympic sport has exponentially increased opportunities for elite sports competition for athletes with disabilities while revolutionising conceptual frameworks about sport and disability. Despite the rapid growth of the Paralympic Movement, women and athletes with high support needs (AHSN) have remained underrepresented. Both female athletes with disabilities and AHSN have historically faced distinct barriers to sports participation and underrepresentation at elite levels of competition in Paralympic sport. Nonetheless, social and cultural trends promoting inclusion, such as increased visibility and grass-roots opportunities for sports participation, have contributed to an overall increase in participation by athletes in both groups. New areas of Paralympic sports research are needed to inform future strategies that maximise inclusion while ensuring elite sports competition.
- Boccia International Sports Federation. 2013. Boccia Classification Rules. 2nd ed., May. http://www.bisfed.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/BISFed-Boccia-Classification-Rules-2nd-Edition-2013.pdf. Accessed 20 September 2015.
- Brittain, Ian. 2009. The Under-Representation of Women and Athletes With High Support Needs at the Paralympic Games. In The Paralympic Games Explained, ed. Ian Brittain, 106–121. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Darcy, Simon, and Lois Appleby. 2011. Sydney 2000. In Paralympic Legacies, ed. David Legg and Keith Gilbert, 75–98. Champaign, IL: Common Ground Publishing.Google Scholar
- Edwards, Steven D., and Mike J. McNamee. 2011. Philosophy. In Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science, the Paralympic Athlete, ed. Yves C. Vanlandewijck and Walter R. Thompson, 89–101. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Hargreaves, Jennifer. 2000. Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity, 187. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Horner-Johnson, William, Christopher B. Keys, David Henry, Kiyoshi Yamaki, Watanabe Kanji, F. Oi, I. Fujimura, Benjamin C. Graham, and Hiroyuki Shimada. 2015. Staff Attitudes Towards People with Intellectual Disabilities in Japan and the United States. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 59 (10): 942–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Howe, David P. 2011. Sociology. In Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science, the Paralympic Athlete, ed. Yves C. Vanlandewijck and Walter R. Thompson, 102–115. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Hughes, Karen, Mark A. Bellis, Lisa Jones, Sara Wood, Geoff Bates, Lindsay Eckley, Ellie McCoy, Christopher Mikton, Tom Shakespeare, and Alana Officer. 2012. Prevalence and Risk of Violence Against Adults with Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Lancet 379 (9826): 1621–1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- International Paralympic Committee. 2003. Section 1, Chapter 1.1, Paralympic Vision and Mission, April. IPC Handbook. Bonn, Germany 2003.Google Scholar
- International Wheelchair Rugby Federation. 2015. IWRF Classification Manual. 3rd ed. Revised 2015. http://www.iwrf.com/resources/iwrf_docs/IWRF_Classification_Manual_3rd_Edition_rev-2015_(English).pdf. Accessed 20 September 2015.
- Jones, Lisa, Mark A. Bellis, Sara Wood, Karen Hughes, Ellie McCoy, Lindsay Eckley, Geoff Bates, Christopher Mikton, Tom Shakespeare, and Alana Officer. 2012. Prevalence and Risk of Violence Against Children with Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Lancet 380 (9845): 899–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joy, Elizabeth A., Sonja Van Hala, and Leslie Cooper. 2009. Health-Related Concerns of the Female Athlete: A Lifespan Approach. American Family Physician 79 (6): 489–495.Google Scholar
- Lauff, Jackie. 2007. Developing Country Participation in International Disability Sport Competition: A Historical Perspective. Master’s Thesis, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
- Maciel Medeiros, Radamés, Eduardo da Silva Alves, Valdir de Aquino Lemos, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre Silva Vieira, Murilo Moreira Barreto, Edilson Alves da Rocha, Sergio Tufik, and Marco Túlio de Mello. 2016. Assessment of Body Composition and Sport Performance of Brazilian Paralympic Swimming Team Athletes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 25 (4): 364–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nevedal, Andrea, Anna L. Kratz, and Denise G. Tate. 2015. Women’s Experiences of Living with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel After Spinal Cord Injury: Life Controlled by Bladder and Bowel. Disability Rehabilitation 5: 1–9.Google Scholar
- Río Ferres, Eva del, Jesús L. Megías, and Francisca Expósito. 2013. Gender-Based Violence Against Women with Visual and Physical Disabilities. Psicothema 25 (1): 67–72.Google Scholar
- Rio2016 website. 2013. IPC Announces Medal Event and Athlete Quotas for Rio 2016™ Paralympics, July 5. http://www.rio2016.com/en/news/news/ipc-announces-medal-event-and-athlete-quotas-for-rio-2016-paralympics. Accessed 20 September 2015.
- Runciman, Phoebe, Wayne Derman, Suzanne Ferreira, Yumna Albertus-Kajee, and Ross Tucker. 2015. A Descriptive Comparison of Sprint Cycling Performance and Neuromuscular Characteristics in Able-Bodied Athletes and Paralympic Athletes with Cerebral Palsy. American Journal of Phys Med Rehabil 94 (1): 28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwellnus, Martin, Wayne Derman, Esme Jordaan, Cheri A. Blauwet, Carolyn Emery, Pia Pit-Grosheide, Norma-Angelica Patino Marques, J. Oriol Martinez-Ferrer, Jaap Stomphorst, Peter Van de Vliet, Nick Webborn, and Stuart E. Willick. 2013. Factors Associated with Illness in Athletes Participating in the London 2012 Paralympic Games: A Prospective Cohort Study Involving 49,910 Athlete-Days. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47 (7): 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sherill, Claudine, and Trevor Williams. 1996. Disability and Sport: Psychosocial Perspectives on Inclusion, Integration, and Participation. Sport Science Review 5 (1): 42–64.Google Scholar
- Tweedy, Sean, and P. David Howe. 2011. Introduction to the Paralympic Movement. In Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science, the Paralympic Athlete, ed. Yves C. Vanlandewijck and Walter R. Thompson, 3–32. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- UN General Assembly. 2006. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 13 December 2006, A/RES/61/106, Annex I. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4680cd212.html. Accessed 13 September 2015.
- Walker, Nefertiti, and T. Bopp. 2011. The Under-Representation of Women in the Male Dominated Sport Workplace: Perspectives of Female Coaches. JWR 15 (1): 47–64.Google Scholar
- Willick, Stuart E., Nick Webborn, Carolyn Emery, Cheri A. Blauwet, Pia Pit-Grosheide, Jaap Stomphorst, Peter Van de Vliet, Norma Angelica Patino Marques, J. Oriol Martinez-Ferrer, Esmè Jordaan, Wayne Derman, and Martin Schwellnus. 2013. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47 (7): 426–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar