Aesthetic Labour: Beauty Politics in Neoliberalism

  • Ana Elias
  • Rosalind Gill
  • Christina Scharff
Part of the Dynamics of Virtual Work book series (DVW)


In 2015 the Australian teenager Essena O’Neill quit Instagram and became headline news around the world. O’Neill, who had more than 600,000 followers on Instagram, earned ‘thousands of dollars’ from marketers for each post, she said, but could no longer tolerate the shameless manipulation of her images and the painful costs of ‘self-promotion’. ‘Resigning’ from the site, she deleted 2000 posts and ‘re-captioned’ the remaining 96 to draw attention to the artifice involved in their production—not just the (notorious) use of filters and ‘retouching’, much discussed in relation to magazine and advertising imagery, but also the poses, the happy and carefree attitude, and the fake intimacy involved. Of one image she wrote: ‘see how relatable my captions were - stomach sucked in, strategic pose, pushed up boobs. I just want younger girls to know this isn’t candid life, or cool or inspirational. It’s contrived perfection made to get attention’.


Beauty Affect Neoliberalism Postfeminism Labour 


  1. Ahmed, S. (2010). The Promise of Happiness. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K. (2014). ‘Blair’s Children’: Young Women as ‘Aspirational Subjects’ in the Psychic Landscape of Class. Sociological Review, 62(4), 760–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrejevic, M. (2015). Foreword. In R. E. Dubrofsky & S. A. Magnet (Eds.), Feminist Surveillance Studies (pp. ix–xviii). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Banet-Weiser, S. (1999). The Most Beeautiful Girl in the World: Beauty Pageants and National Identity. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Banet-Weiser, S. (2012). Authentic™: The Politics of Ambivalence in a Brand Culture. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Banet-Weiser, S. (2014). Am I Pretty or Ugly? Girls and the Market for Self-Esteem. Girlhood Studies, 7(1), 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartky, S. L. (1990). Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Baumgardner, J., & Richards, A. (2000). Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism and the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, J. (1972). Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  10. Berlant, L. (2006). Cruel Optimism. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 17(3), 20–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bordo, S. (1997). Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  13. Boyne, R. (2000). Post-panopticism. Economy and Society, 29(2), 285–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, W. (2003). Neoliberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy. Theory & Event, 7(1). Retrieved October 10, 2016, from
  15. Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  16. Burchell, G. (1993). Liberal Government and Techniques of the Self. Economy and Society, 22(3), 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butler, J. (1997). Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Chancer, L. S. (1998). Reconcilable Differences: Confronting Beauty, Pornography and the Future of Feminism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  19. Clarke, J. (2008). Living with/in and Without Neo-Liberalism. Focaal, 51, 135–147.Google Scholar
  20. Clough, P. T. (2007). Introduction. In P. T. Clough & J. Hailey (Eds.), The Affective Turn: Theorizing the Social (pp. 1–33). Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colebrook, C. (2003). Happiness, Theoria, and Everyday Life. Symploke, 11(1–2), 132–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Colebrook, C. (2006). Introduction. Feminist Theory, 7(2), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coleman, R. (2009). The Becoming of Bodies: Girls, Images, Experience. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Coleman, R., & Figueroa, M. G. M. (2010). Past and Future Perfect? Beauty, Affect and Hope. Journal for Cultural Research, 14(4), 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Craig, M. L. (2002). Ain’t I A Beauty Queen? Black Women, Beauty and the Politics of Race. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Craig, M. L. (2006). Race, Beauty and the Tangled Knot of a Guilty Pleasure. Feminist Theory, 7(2), 159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crouch, C. (2011). The Strange Non-Death of Neo-Liberalism. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  28. Dardot, P., & Laval, C. (2013). The New Way of the World: On Neoliberal Society. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  29. Davies, B. (2005). The (Im)possibility of Intellectual Work in Neoliberal Regimes. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 26(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, K. (2015). Should a Feminist Dance Tango? Some Reflections on the Experience and Politics of Passion. Feminist Theory, 16(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dobson, A. S. (2015). Postfeminist Digital Cultures: Femininity, Social Media, and Self-Representation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dosekun, S. (2015). For Western Girls Only? Postfeminism as Transnational Culture. Feminist Media Studies, 15(6), 960–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Douglas, S. J. (2010). Enlightened sexism: The seductive message that feminism’s work is done. Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Dubrofsky, R. E., & Magnet, S. A. (2015). Feminist Surveillance Studies: Critical Interventions. In R. E. Dubrofsky & S. A. Magnet (Eds.), Feminist Surveillance Studies (pp. 1–20). Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elias, A. (2016). Beautiful Body, Confident Soul: Young Women and the Beauty Labour of Neoliberalism. Unpublished PhD thesis, submitted to King’s College London.Google Scholar
  36. Elias, A., & Gill, R. (in press). Beauty Surveillance: The Digital Self-Monitoring Cultures of Neoliberalism. European Journal of Cultural Studies.Google Scholar
  37. Entwistle, J. (2000). The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress and Modern Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  38. Fahs, B. (2014). Perilous Patches and Pitstaches: Imagined Versus Lived Experiences of Women’s Body Hair Growth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38, 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Faludi, S. (1991). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  40. Farris, S. R. (2012). Femonationalism and the “Regular” Army of Labor Called Migrant Women. History of the Present, 2(2), 184–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Featherstone, M. (2010). Body, Image and Affect in Consumer Culture. Body & Society, 16(1), 193–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Felski, R. (2006). Because It Is Beautiful: New Feminist Perspectives on Beauty. Feminist Theory, 7(2), 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferreday, D. (2007). Adapting Femininities: The New Burlesque. M/C Journal, 10(2) [online]. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from
  44. Figueroa, M. G. M. (2015). On Dancing, Lipstick and Feminism: A Response to Kathy Davis. Feminist Theory, 16(1), 23–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Figueroa, M. G. M., & Moore, M. R. (2013). Beauty, Race and Feminist Theory in Latin America and the Caribbean. Feminist Theory, 14(2), 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977 (C. Gordon, ed; C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham and K. Soper, Trans.). New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  47. Foucault, M. (2008). The Birth of Biopolitics. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  48. Garland, C., & Harper, S. (2012). Did Somebody Say Neoliberalism? On the Uses and Limitations of a Critical Concept in Media and Communication Studies. TripleC, 10(2), 413–424.Google Scholar
  49. Gavey, N. (2005). Just Sex? The Cultural Scaffolding of Rape. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. du Gay, P. (1996). Consumption and Identity at Work. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Gilbert, J. (ed). (2013). Special Issue: Neoliberal Culture. New Formations: A Journal of Culture/Theory/Politics, 80/81.Google Scholar
  52. Gill, R. (2007). Gender and the Media. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  53. Gill, R. (2016). Post-postfeminism? New Feminist Visibilities in Postfeminist Times. Feminist Media Studies, 16(4), 610–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gill, R. (in press-a). Surveillance Is a Feminist Issue. In T. Oren & A. Press (Eds.), Handbook of Contemporary Feminism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Gill, R. (in press-b). The Affective, Cultural and Psychic Life of Postfeminism. European Journal of Cultural Studies.Google Scholar
  56. Gill, R., & Elias, A. (2014). ‘Awaken your Incredible’: Love Your Body Discourses and Postfeminist Contradictions. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 10(2), 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gill, R., & Orgad, S. (2015). The Confidence Culture. Australian Feminist Studies, 30(86), 324–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gill, R., & Scharff, C. (Eds.). (2011). New Femininities: Postfeminism, Neoliberalism and Subjectivity. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  59. Gilroy, P. (2013). ‘… We Got to Get Over Before We Go Under …’ Fragments for a History of Black Vernacular Neoliberalism. New Formations, 80–81, 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  61. Gregg, M., & Seigworth, G. J. (2010). An Inventory of Shimmers. In M. Gregg & G. J. Seigworth (Eds.), The Affect Theory Reader (pp. 1–25). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Grewal, I., & Kaplan, C. (1994). Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  63. Grogan, S. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Grugulis, I., Warhurst, C., & Keep, E. (2004). What’s Happening to ‘Skill’? In C. Warhurst, I. Grugulis, & E. Keep (Eds.), The Skills That Matter (pp. 1–18). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Hardin, C. (2014). Finding the ‘Neo’ in Neoliberalism. Cultural Studies, 28(2), 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hardt, M. (2005). Into the Factory: Negri’s Lennin and the Subjective Caesura (1968–1973). In T. S. Murphy & A.-K. Mustapha (Eds.), Resistance in Practice: The Philosophy of Antonio Negri (pp. 7–37). London and Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  67. Hayward, M. (2013). Atms, Teleprompters and Photobooths: A Short History of Neoliberal Optics. New Formations, 80(1), 194–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hegde, R. S. (2011). Circuits of Visibility: Gender and Transnational Media Cultures. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hemmings, C. (2005). Invoking Affect: Cultural Theory and the Ontological Turn. Cultural Studies, 19(5), 548–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Henderson, L. (2008). Slow Love. The Communication Review, 11(3), 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Henderson, M., & Taylor, A. (in press). Postfeminism Down Under: The Australian Postfeminist Mystique. Abingdon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Hesmondhalgh, D., & Baker, S. (2011). Creative Labour: Media Work in Three Cultural Industries. Abingdon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Hochschild, A. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley/London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Holland, P. (1987). When a Woman Reads the News. In H. Baehr & G. Dyer (Eds.), Boxed-in: Women and Television (pp. 133–150). London: Pandora.Google Scholar
  75. Hunter, M. (2011). Buying Racial Capital: Skin-Bleaching and Cosmetic Surgery in a Globalized World. Journal of Pan African Studies, 4(4), 142–164.Google Scholar
  76. Illouz, E. (2007). Cold Intimacies: The Making of Emotional Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  77. Imre, A., Marciniak, K., & O’Healy, A. (2009). Transcultural Mediations and Transnational Politics of Difference. Feminist Media Studies, 9(4), 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Isin, E. (2014). Acts, Affects, Calls. OpenDemocracy [online]. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from
  79. Jarrin, A. (2015). Towards a Biopolitics of Beauty: Eugenics, Aesthetic Hierarchies and Plastic Surgery in Brazil. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 24(4), 535–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jha, M. R. (2016). The Global Beauty Industry: Colorism, Racism, and the National Body. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Kadir, S., & Tidy, J. (2011). Gays, Gaze and Aunty Gok: The Disciplining of Gender and Sexuality in ‘How to Look Good Naked’. Feminist Media Studies, 13(2), 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kanai, A. (2015). WhatShouldWeCallMe? Self-Branding, Individuality and Belonging in Youthful Femininities on Tumblr. M/C Journal, 18(1). Retrieved October 10, 2016, from
  83. Kanai, A. (2016). Laughing Through the Discomfort: Navigating Neoliberal Feeling Rules in a Tumblr Attention Economy. In T. Petray & A. Stephens (Eds.), Proceedings of The Australian Sociological Association Conference, Cairns, 23–26 November 2015.Google Scholar
  84. Kim, J. M. (2012). Women in South Korea: New Femininities and Consumption. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Larner, W. (2000). Neo-liberalism: Policy, Ideology, Governmentality. Studies in Political Economy, 63, 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lemke, T. (2001). ‘The Birth of Bio-Politics’: Michel Foucault’s Lecture at the Collège de France on Neo-Liberal Governmentality. Economy and Society, 30(2), 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lloyd, R. D. (2006). Neo-Bohemia: Art and Commerce in the Postindustrial City. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Lumby, C. (1997). Bad Girls: The Media, Sex and Feminism in the 90s. Sidney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  89. Lupton, D. (2016). The Quantified Self. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  90. Lynch, M. (2011). Blogging for Beauty? A Critical Analysis of Operation Beautiful. Women’s Studies International Forum, 34(6), 582–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Madhok, S., Phillips, A., & Wilson, K. (2013). Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Massumi, B. (2002). Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McAvoy, J. (2015). From Ideology to Feeling: Discourse, Emotion, and an Analytic Synthesis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 12(1), 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McNay, L. (2009). Self as Enterprise: Dilemmas of Control and Resistance in Foucault’s The Birth of Biopolitics. Theory, Culture & Society, 26(6), 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McNeil, M. (2010). Postmillennial Feminist Theory: Encounters with Humanism, Materialism, Critique, Nature, Biology and Darwin. Journal for Cultural Research, 14(4), 427–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mathiesen, T. (1997). The Viewer Society: Michel Foucault’s Panopticon Revisited. Theoretical Criminology, 1(2), 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McRobbie, A. (2009). The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. McRobbie, A. (2013). Feminism, the Family and the New Mediated Maternalism. New Formations, 80–81, 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McRobbie, A. (2015). Notes on the Perfect: Competitive Femininity in Neoliberal Times. Australian Feminist Studies, 30(83), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mears, A. (2014). Aesthetic Labor for the Sociologies of Work, Gender and Beauty. Sociology Compass, 8(12), 1330–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mercer, K. (1990). Black Art and the Burden of Representation. Third Text, 4(10), 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mirowski, P. (2014). Never Let a Serious Crisis Go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  103. Mirowski, P., & Phlewe, D. (2009). The Road from Mont Pelerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Cllective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mohanty, C. (1984). Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses. Boundary, 2(12/13), 333–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Morton, K. (2015). Emerging Geographies of Disciplining the Ageing Body: Practising Cosmetic Technologies in the Aesthetic Clinic. Gender, Place & Culture, 22(7), 1041–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mudge, S. L. (2008). What Is Neo-Liberalism? Socio-Economic Review, 6(4), 703–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Murphy, R. (2013). (De)Constructing “Body Love” Discourses in Young Women’s Magazines’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wellington, Victoria.Google Scholar
  108. Murphy, R., & Jackson, S. (2011). Bodies-as-image? The Body Made Visible in Magazine Love Your Body Content. Women’s Studies Journal, 25(1), 17–30.Google Scholar
  109. Murray, D. P. (2013). Branding ‘Real’ Social Change in Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty. Feminist Media Studies, 13(1), 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nash, M. (2014). Picturing Mothers: A Photovoice Study of Body Image in Pregnancy. Health Sociology Review, 23(3), 242–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Neff, G., & Nafus, D. (2016). Self Tracking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  112. Ngai, S. (2005). Ugly Feelings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Nguyen, M. T. (2011). The Biopower of Beauty: Humanitarian Imperialisms and Global Feminisms in the War on Terror. Signs, 36(2), 359–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nickson, D. P., Warhurst, C., Witz, A., & Cullen, A. M. (2001). The Importance of Being Aesthetic: Work, Employment and Service Organization. In I. Grugulis & H. Willmott (Eds.), A Sturdy (pp. 170–190). Customer Service: Empowerment and Entrapment.Google Scholar
  115. O’Flynn, G., & Petersen, E. B. (2007). The ‘Good Life’ and the ‘Rich Portfolio’: Young Women, Schooling and Neoliberal Subjectification. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(4), 459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ong, A. (2006). Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pham, M.-H. (2011). The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terrorism. Signs, 36(2), 385–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rettberg, J. W. (2014). Seeing Ourselves Through Technology: How We Use Selfies, Blogs and Wearable Devices to See and Shape Ourselves. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Riley, S., Evans, A., & Mackiewicz, A. (2016). It’s Just Between Girls: Negotiating the Postfeminist Gaze in Women’s ‘Looking Talk’. Feminism & Psychology, 26(1), 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ringrose, J., & Harvey, L. (2015). BBM Is Like Social Networking and the Digital Mediation of Teen’s Sexual Cultures. In J. Bailey & V. Steeves (Eds.), Egirls, Ecitizens (pp. 199–226). Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
  121. Ringrose, J., Harvey, L., Gill, R., & Livingstone, S. (2013). Teen Girls, Sexual Double Standards and ‘Sexting’: Gendered Value in Digital Image Exchange. Feminist Theory, 14(3), 305–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ringrose, J., & Renold, E. (2010). Normative Cruelties and Gender Deviants: The performative Effects of Bully Discourses for Girls and Boys in School. British Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ringrose, J., & Walkerdine, V. (2008). Regulating the Abject: The TV Make-over as Site of Neo-Liberal Reinvention Toward Bourgeois Femininity. Feminist Media Studies, 8(3), 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rodrigues, S. (2012). Undressing Homogeneity: Prescribing Femininity and the Transformation of Self-Esteem in ‘How to Look Good Naked’. Journal of Popular Film and Television, 40(1), 42–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rose, N. (1992). Governing the Enterprising Self. In P. Heelas & P. Morris (Eds.), The Values of the Enterprise Culture: The Moral Debate (pp. 141–164). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  126. Saraswati, L. A. (2013). Seeing Beauty, Sensing Race in Transnational Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sawicki, J. (1991). Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power and the Body. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  128. Scharff, C. (2011). Disarticulating Feminism: Idividualization, Neoliberalism and the Othering of ‘Muslim Women’. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 18(2), 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Scharff, C. (2015). The Psychic Life of Neoliberalism: Mapping the Contours of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity. Theory, Culture & Society, 0(0) 1–16 (published online ahead of print).Google Scholar
  130. Scharff, C. (2016). Gender and Neoliberalism: Young Women as Ideal Neoliberal Subjects. In S. Springer, K. Birch, & J. Macleavy (Eds.), The Handbook of Neoliberalism (pp. 217–226). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  131. Senft, T. M. (2015). The Skin of the Selfie. In A. Bieber (Ed.), Ego Update: The Future of Digital Identity. Dusseldorf, Germany: NRW Forum Publications.Google Scholar
  132. Shamir, R. (2008). The Age of Responsibilization: On Market-embedded Morality. Economy and Society, 37(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Social Mobility Commission. (2016). Socio-economic Diversity in Life Sciences and Investment Banking. London: Social Mobility Commission.Google Scholar
  134. Springer, S., Birch, K., & MacLeavy, J. (Eds.). (2016). The Handbook of Neoliberalism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  135. Stedman Jones, D. (2012). Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics. Princeton, Woodstock: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Tasker, Y., & Negra, D. (Eds.). (2007). Interrogating Postfeminism: Gender and the Politics of Popular Culture. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Tate, S. (2007). Black Beauty: Shade, Hair and Anti-Racist Aesthetics. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(2), 300–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tate, S. (2013). The Performativity of Black Beauty Shame in Jamaica and its Diaspora: Problematising and Transforming Beauty Iconicities. Feminist Theory, 14(2), 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thompson, P., Warhurst, C., & Callaghan, G. (2001). Ignorant Theory and Knowledgeable Workers: Interrogating the Connections Between Knowledge, Skills and Services. Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 923–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tyler, I. (2008). ‘Chav Mum Chav Scum’: Class Disgust in Contemporary Britain. Feminist Media Studies, 8(1), 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tyler, I. (2011). Pregnant Beauty: Maternal Femininities Under Neoliberalism. In R. Gill & C. Scharff (Eds.), New Femininities: Postfeminism, Neoliberalism and Subjectivity (pp. 21–36). Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Walby, K., & Anais, S. (2015). Research Methods, Institutional Ethnography and Feminist Surveillance Studies. In R. E. Dubrofsky & S. A. Magnet (Eds.), Feminist Surveillance Studies (pp. 208–220). Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Warhurst, C., & Nickson, D. (2009). Who’s Got the Look?’ From Emotional to Aesthetic and Sexualised Labour in Interactive Services. Gender, Work and Organisation, 16(3), 385–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Warhust, C., & Nickson, D. (2001). Looking Good, Sounding Right: Style Counselling in the New Economy. London: Industrial Society.Google Scholar
  145. Weber, B. R. (2009). Makeover TV: Selfhood, Citizenship, and Celebrity. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wen, H. (2013). Buying Beauty: Cosmetic Surgery in China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Wendt, B. (2014). The Allure of the Selfie: Instagram and the New Self-portrait. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures.Google Scholar
  148. Wetherell, M. S. (2012). Affect and Emotion: A New Social Science Understanding. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Williams, R. (2014). “Eat, Pray, Love”: Producing the Female Neoliberal Spiritual Subject. Journal of Popular Culture, 47(3), 613–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Winch, A. (2013). Girlfriends and Postfeminist Sisterhood. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Winch, A. (2015). Brand Intimacy, Female Friendship and Digital Surveillance Networks. New Formations, 84, 228–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wissinger, E. (2015). This Year’s Model: Fashion, Media, and the Making of Glamour. New York: NYU Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wolf, N. (1990). The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  154. Wykes, M., & Gunter, B. (2004). If Looks Could Kill: Media and Body Image. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  155. Xu, G., & Feiner, S. (2007). Meinü Jingji: China’s Beauty Economy. Buying Looks, Shifting Value, and Changing Place. Feminist Economics, 13(3–4), 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Yang, J. (2011). Nennu and Shunu: Gender, Body Politics, and the Beauty Economy in China. Signs, 36(2), 333–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Elias
    • 1
  • Rosalind Gill
    • 2
  • Christina Scharff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CultureMedia and Creative Industries, King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of SociologyCity, University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations