Advertisement

Knowledge Cultures

  • Ane Ohrvik
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Historical Studies in Witchcraft and Magic book series (PHSWM)

Abstract

Chapter 2 describes key features of the Black Book manuscripts. By answering questions such as what characterised the writing process, who wrote Black Books, who owned them, and which book markets they belonged to, the specific manuscript culture that describes these books is illuminated. Furthermore, the chapter identifies the genres of printed literature that inspired the making of Black Books and from which generic literary links are created between medical, magical and artisanal knowledge production in the early modern period. An underpinning question following the discussions in this chapter relates to why the Norwegian Black Books were produced exclusively in script form. The chapter suggests that restricted printing possibilities and censorship in Denmark-Norway contributed to making this a distinct scribal culture.

Bibliography

  1. Agricola, Georg. 1531. Rechter Gebrauch d’Alchimei, Mitt vil bißher verborgenen nutzbaren unnd lustigen Künsten: Nit allein den fürwitzigen Alchimis misten, Sonder allen kunstbaren Werckleutten, in und ausserhalb feurs … zuge brauchen .... S.1.Google Scholar
  2. Altick, Richard. 2006. The English Common Reader. From Caxton to the Eighteenth Century. Chap. 34 in The Book History Reader, ed. David Finkelstein and Alistair McCleery, 440–449. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Amundsen, Arne Bugge. 1987. Svarteboken fra Borge. Sarpsborg: Borgarsyssel Museum.Google Scholar
  4. Anon. 1549. Opera nuova nella quale troverai molti bellissimi secreti. Nuovamente Venuti in Luce. I Quali Sonno Di Grande Utilitade, E Di Piacer. Florence: [Firenze], stampata ad instantia di Baldassarre Faentino.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1850. Mester Cyprianus eller Svartbogen. Lillehammer: M. Urdal.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1859. Svartebogen. Fredrikstad: Eeck, J.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1881a. Cyprianus bog, ordret optrykt efter Den Gamle Cyprianus, der for over 100 aar siden fandtes i afskrifter iblandt almuen. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 1881b. Den lille Cyprianus, Veiledning til med lethed at spaae sig selv og andre. København.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1890. Et lille udtog af Syprianus [I.E.: Cyprianus], indeholdende en del nyttige raad og videnskaber; der kun maa anvendes med et christeligt sind i nødstilfælde, saa at det ikke skal blive dig til synd. S.l.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 1902. Indeholdende den fulstændigste og paalideligste drømmeog spaabog… samt planetbog…, med fortegnelse over Tycho Brahes dage… saml. efter… Sybille og Lenormand… samt efter… Shahab-Eddins hemmelige optegnelser. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1917. En gammel, fyensk lægebog eller Cyprianus. Odense.Google Scholar
  12. Anon, Christophe Landré, and Jeremias Martius. 1597. Kunstbüch … von mancherley nutzlichen, biszher verborgnen und lustigen Künsten … sampt einem andern Büchlin/vor etlichen Jaren in frantzösischer Sprach, durch Christophorum Landrinum auszgangen, darinn etliche fürtreffliche bewerte Artzneyen … begriffen seind, jetzt bber beyde in Teutsche Sprach verfertiget durch Hieremiam Martium. Augsburg, Germany: Manger, Michael.Google Scholar
  13. Anonymous. 1525. Opera nova intitolata Dificio di ricette. Giovanantonio et fratelli da Sabio.Google Scholar
  14. Appadurai, Arjun. 1986. Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value. Chap. 1 in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Arjun Appadurai, 3–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bairo, Pietro. 1562. Secreti medicinali … ne quali si contengono i rimedi che si possono usar in tutte l’infermità che vengono all’huomo/[Pietro Bairo]. Venice, Italy: Sansovino, Francesco.Google Scholar
  16. Bang, A. Chr. 1901. Norske hexeformularer og magiske opskrifter. Videnskabsselskabets Skrifter Ii. Kristiania: On commission at Jacob Dybwad.Google Scholar
  17. Bastiansen, Henrik Grue, and Hans Fredrik Dahl. 2003. Norsk mediehistorie. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  18. Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. 2009. A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  19. Clegg, Cyndia Susan. 2015. The Authority and Subversiveness of Print in Early-Modern Europe In The Cambridge Companion to the History of the Book, ed. Leslie Howsam. Cambridge Companions to Literature. The Cambridge Companion to the History of the Book, 125–142: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Cortese, Isabella. 1561. I secreti. Venice.Google Scholar
  21. Crick, Julia C., and Alexandra Walsham. 2004. Introduction: Script, Print, and History. Chap. 1 in The Uses of Script and Print, 1300–1700, ed. Julia C. Crick and Alexandra Walsham, 1–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cyprianus. 1870. Cyprianus aar 1607: Efter et manuskript paa Det Store Kongel. Bibl. for førstegang i trykken. København.Google Scholar
  23. Cyprianus’ drømmebog, samt Tyge Brahes uheldige og lykkelige dage. 1880. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  24. Dahl, Gina. 2006. Questioning Religious Influence: Private Libraries of Clerics and Physicians in Norway 1650–1750. Bergen: Faculty of Arts, University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  25. Danielsen, Daniel, and Sophus Jenssen. 1958. Dypvåg: Gårds- og slektshistorie. Vol. 2. [S.l.]: [S.n.].Google Scholar
  26. Davies, Owen. 2009. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Devlin, Judith. 1987. The Superstitious Mind: French Peasants and the Supernatural in the Nineteenth Century. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Eamon, William. 1996. Science and the Secrets of Nature: Books of Secrets in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. ———. 2011. How to Read a Book of Secrets. In Secrets and Knowledge in Medicine and Science, 1500–1800, ed. Elaine Leong and Alisha Rankin, 23–46. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  30. Ehrencron-Müller, H. 1924. Rh-Sta. Forfatterlexikon omfattende Danmark, Norge og Island indtil 1814. Vol. VII. Copenhagen: Aschehoug.Google Scholar
  31. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 1979. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ellingsen, Terje. 1990. Kirkeordinansen av 1537: Reformasjonens kirkelov. Verbum.Google Scholar
  33. Espeland, Velle. 1974. Svartbok frå Gudbrandsdalen. Norsk Folkminnelags Skrifter 110. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  34. Ezell, Margaret J.M. 1999. Social Authorship and the Advent of Print. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. 1990. The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450–1800. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  36. Fet, Jostein. 1995. Lesande bønder: Litterær kultur i norske allmugesamfunn før 1840. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  37. Fissell, Mary E. 2007. The Marketplace for Print. Chap. 6 in Medicine and the Market in England and Its Colonies, C. 1450–C.1850, ed. Mark S.R. Jenner and Patrick Wallis, 108–132. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Garstein, Oskar. 1993. Vinjeboka: Den eldste svartebok fra norsk middelalder. Oslo: Solum.Google Scholar
  39. Gentilcore, David. 2006. Medical Charlatanism in Early Modern Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hake, Peter. 1648. En liden dog konsterig bog/om adskillige slags farffve oc bleck. Oeconomia Nova. Vol. 2. Copenhagen: Jørgen Holst.Google Scholar
  41. Hareide, M. 1951. Sandøy Skule. In Dypvåg skulesoge I, 7. AAKS.Google Scholar
  42. Hellinga, Lotte. 2009. The Gutenberg Revolutions. Chap. 15 in A Companion to the History of the Book, ed. Simon Eliot and Jonathan Rose, 207–219. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Johns, Adrian. 2015. The Coming of Print to Europe. Chap. 7 in The Cambridge Companion to the History of the Book, ed. Leslie Howsam. Cambridge Companions to Literature, 107–124. The Cambridge Companion to the History of the Book Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jugel, Caspar. 1648. Oeconomia: Eller nødvendige beretning oc anleding, hvorledis en gandske huußholding paa det nytteligste oc beste (saa fremt gud allermæctigste giffver sin velsignelse) kand anstillis. Vol. 1. Oeconomia Nova Paa Danske: Med Andre Hosføyede Tractater. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  45. Kopytoff, Igor. 1986. The Cultural Biography of Things: Commoditization as Process. Chap. 2 in The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Arjun Appadurai, 64–91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Krefting, Ellen. 2017. Konger uten klær: Hemmelige historier som eneveldekritisk sjanger. Arr idéhistorisk tidsskrift 1, 3–18.Google Scholar
  47. Long, Pamela O. 2004. Openness, Secrecy, Authorship. Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance. Baltimore, MD and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Love, Harold. 1998. The Culture and Commerce of Texts: Scribal Publication in Seventeenth Century England. Amherst, MD: University of Massachusetts Press. 1993.Google Scholar
  49. Mellemgaard, Signe. 1998. Kroppens natur: Sundhedsopplysning og naturidealer i 250 år. Etnologiske Studier. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculaneums Forlag.Google Scholar
  50. Mollier, Jean-Yves. 2007. France between Literary Culture and Mass Culture: Seventeenth to Twentieth Century. In Literary Cultures and the Material Book, ed. Simon Eliot, Andrew Nash, and I.R. Willison. The British Library Studies in the History of the Book, 269–280. London: British Library.Google Scholar
  51. Ohrt, Ferdinand. 1923. Cyprianus: Hans bog og hans bøn. In Danske studier, ed. Gunnar Knudsen and Marius Kristensen, 1–21. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  52. Ohrvik, Ane. 2014. Et forsøk på portrett av en svarteboksamler i Norsk Folkeminesamling. In “En vild endevending av al virkelighet”: Norsk Folkeminnesamling i hundre år, ed. Line Esborg and Dirk Johannsen, 207–218. Oslo: Novus Forlag.Google Scholar
  53. Østberg, Kristian. 1925. Svartboka. Oslo: Steenske Forlag.Google Scholar
  54. Ovenstad, Olai. 1948. Militærbiografier: Den norske hærs officerer fra 18. januar 1628 til 17. mai 1814. Vol. 1. Oslo: Norsk slektshistorisk forening.Google Scholar
  55. Rian, Øystein. 2010. Sensuren i Danmark-Norge, 1536–1814. In Demokratisk teori og historisk praksis. Forutsetninger for folkestyre 1750–1850, ed. Hilde Sandvik, 123–160. Oslo: Scandinavian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Rosenlund, Søren. 1771. Sybrianus P.P.P., paa nye oplagt efter originalen. Copenhagen: Morten Hallager, no. 196 Fiolstræde i No. 196.Google Scholar
  57. Rosetti, Giovanni Ventura. 1555. Notandissimi secreti de l’arte profumatoria. Venice: Vinegia.Google Scholar
  58. Ruscelli, Girolamo d ca. 1658. Veelderhande treffelijcke secreten :B…Inhoudende seer excellente … remedien, tegen veelderhande kranckheden, wonden ende andere accidenten: Met de maniere van distilleren, perfumeren, confituren maecken te verwen, coleuren, ende gieten/[Girolamo Ruscelli]. Amsterdam: Doornick, Gerrit Willemsz.Google Scholar
  59. Smid, Henrick. 1577. En skøn lystig ny urtegård, prydet met mange atskillige urter som tiene menniskens legems sundheds opholdelse, disligest huorledis electuaria, syruper conserua, oc olie skulle ret konstelige giøris/og beredis/aff denne urtegaards urter/deris røder oc blomster, de andre saadanne subtilige nyttelige ting/aldrig tilforn seet paa vort danske tungemaal, tilhobe samlet oc fordansket aff Henrick Smid udi Malmø 1546. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  60. Smith, Ginnie. 1985. Prescribing the Rules of Health: Self-Help and Advice in the Late Eighteenth Century. In Patients and Practitioners: Lay Perceptions of Medicine in Pre-Industrial Society, ed. Roy Porter. Cambridge Monographs on the History of Medicine, 249–282. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Stephanson, Willum. 1798. Cyprianus eller Svartebogen. Trondhjem.Google Scholar
  62. Stolberg, Michael. 2004. Medical Popularization and the Patient in the Eighteenth Century. Chap. 6 in Cultural Approaches to the History of Medicine: Mediating Medicine in Early Modern and Modern Europe, ed. Willem de Blécourt and Cornelie Usborne, 89–107. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Storey, Tessa. 2008. Italian Books of Secrets Database: Study Documentation. 1–37. https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/4335/3/Italian%20Books%20of%20Secrets%20Database_Study%20Documentation.pdf
  64. Tank, Gunnar. 1927. Boghandlerprivilegier før 1814. In Boken om bøker, ed. W.P. Sommerfelt. Aarskrift for Bokvenner, 59–81. Oslo: Steenske Forlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ane Ohrvik
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations