The Four-C Model of Creativity: Culture and Context

  • Max Helfand
  • James C. Kaufman
  • Ronald A. Beghetto
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Creativity and Culture book series (PASCC)

Abstract

In this chapter, we highlight the Four-C Model of creativity, which traces creative development from mini-c (personal creativity) to little-c (everyday creativity) to Pro-c (expert creativity) to Big-C (genius creativity). We highlight the role of culture at each stage of the four C’s and pay particular attention to the transitions between each level of the model. We highlight such concepts as creative metacognition and feedback.

References

  1. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to ‘The social psychology of creativity’. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2005). Bridging generality and specificity: The amusement park theoretical (APT) model of creativity. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 27(3), 158–163. doi:10.1080/02783190509554310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W H Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.uconn.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.uconn.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1997-08589-000&site=ehost-live.Google Scholar
  4. Barron, F. (1955). The disposition toward originality. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51(3), 478–485. doi:10.1037/h0048073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beghetto, R. A. (2006). Creative self-efficacy: Correlates in middle and secondary students. Creativity Research Journal, 18(4), 447–457. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1804_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beghetto, R. A. (2007a). Does creativity have a place in classroom discussions? Prospective teachers’ response preferences. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2(1), 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2006.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beghetto, R. A. (2007b). Ideational code-switching: Walking the talk about supporting student creativity in the classroom. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 29(4), 265–270. doi:10.1080/02783190709554421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beghetto, R. A. (2013). Killing ideas softly? The promise and perils of creativity in the classroom. Charlotte: IAP Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Beghetto, R. A. (2016). Creative learning: A fresh look. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 15, 6–23.Google Scholar
  10. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007a). The genesis of creative greatness: Mini-c and the expert performance approach. High Ability Studies, 18(1), 59–61. doi:10.1080/13598130701350668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007b). Toward a broader conception of creativity: A case for ‘mini-c’ creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1(2), 73–79. doi:10.1037/1931-3896.1.2.73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2009). Intellectual estuaries: Connecting learning and creativity in programs of advanced academics. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(2), 296–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). Fundamentals of creativity. Educational Leadership, 70, 10-15.Google Scholar
  14. Beghetto, R. A., & Kaufman, J. C. (2014). Classroom contexts for creativity. High Ability Studies, 25(1), 53–69. doi:10.1080/13598139.2014.905247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beghetto, R. A., Kaufman, J. C., & Baxter, J. (2011). Answering the unexpected questions: Exploring the relationship between students’ creative self-efficacy and teacher ratings of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5(4), 342–349. doi:10.1037/a0022834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beghetto, R. A., Kaufman, J. C., Hegarty, C. B., Hammond, H. L., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2012). Cultivating creativity, play and leisure in early childhood education: A 4 C perspective. In O. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives in early childhood education (pp. 247–266). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Cho, Y., Chung, H. Y., Choi, K., Seo, C., & Baek, E. (2013). The emergence of student creativity in classroom settings: A case study of elementary schools in Korea. Journal of Creative Behavior, 47, 152–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, L. M. (1989). A continuum of adaptive creative behaviors. Creativity Research Journal, 2(3), 169–183. doi:10.1080/10400418909534313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doyle, C. L. (2011). Dimensions of the creative episode: Old categories, new perspectives. Creativity Research Journal, 23(1), 51–59. doi:10.1080/10400419.2011.545748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ericsson, K. A., Roring, R. W., & Nandagopal, K. (2007). Giftedness and evidence for reproducibly superior performance: An account based on the expert performance framework. High Ability Studies, 18(1), 3–56. doi:10.1080/13598130701350593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gardner, H. (1993). Creating minds. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Gibson, J. J. (1986). The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Glăveanu, V. P. (2011). Creativity as cultural participation. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 41(1), 48–67. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5914.2010.00445.x.
  24. Glăveanu, V. P. (2013). Rewriting the language of creativity: The five A’s framework. Review of General Psychology, 17(1), 69–81. doi:10.1037/a0029528.
  25. Glăveanu, V. P. (in press). Creativity as a sociocultural act. Journal of Creative Behavior. doi:10.1002/jocb.94.
  26. Grow, J., Roca, D., & Broyles, S. J. (2012). Vanishing acts: Creative women in Spain and the United States. International Journal of Advertising: The Quarterly Review of Marketing Communications, 31(3), 657–679. doi:10.2501/IJA-31-3-657-679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5(9), 444–454. doi:10.1037/h0063487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Guilford, J. P. (1957). Creative abilities in the arts. Psychological Review, 64(2), 110–118. doi:10.1037/h0048280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayes, J. R. (1989). The complete problem solver (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Helson, R. (1990). Creativity in women: Outer and inner views over time. In M. A. Runco & R. S. Albert (Eds.), Theories of creativity (pp. 46–58). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Hennessey, B. A. (in press). Creative behavior, motivation, environment and culture: The building of a systems model. Journal of Creative Behavior. doi:10.1002/jocb.97.
  32. Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 14, 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The four c model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 1–12. doi:10.1037/a0013688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2013a). In praise of Clark Kent: Creative metacognition and the importance of teaching kids when (not) to be creative. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 35(3), 155–165. doi:10.1080/02783193.2013.799413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2013b). Do people recognize the four Cs? Examining layperson conceptions of creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7, 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaufman, S. B., & Kaufman, J. C. (2007). Ten years to expertise, many more to greatness: An investigation of modern writers. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 41(2), 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaufman, J. C., Beghetto, R. A., Baer, J., & Ivcevic, Z. (2010). Creativity polymathy: What Benjamin Franklin can teach your kindergartener. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(4), 380–387. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaufman, J. C., Beghetto, R. A., & Watson, C. (2015). Creative metacognition and self-ratings of creative performance: A 4-c perspective. Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2015.05.004.Google Scholar
  39. Kharkhurin, A. V. (2014). Creativity.4in1: Four-criterion construct of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(3), 338–352. doi:10.1080/10400419.2014.929424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kozbelt, A. (2007). A quantitative analysis of Beethoven as self-critic: Implications for psychological theories of musical creativity. Psychology of Music, 35(1), 144–168. doi:10.1177/0305735607068892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kozbelt, A. (2008). Hierarchical linear modeling of creative artists’ problem solving behaviors. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42(3), 181–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kozbelt, A., & Durmysheva, Y. (2007). Lifespan creativity in a non-western artistic tradition: A study of japanese ukiyo-e printmakers. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 65(1), 23–51. doi:10.2190/166N-6470-1325-T341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121–1134.Google Scholar
  44. Lassig, C. J. (2013). Approaches to creativity: How adolescents engage in the creative process. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 3–12. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2013.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee, C. S., Therriault, D. J., & Linderholm, T. (2012). On the cognitive benefits of cultural experience: Exploring the relationship between studying abroad and creative thinking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), 768–778. doi:10.1002/acp.2857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leung, A. K., & Chiu, C. (2010). Multicultural experience, idea receptiveness, and creativity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(5–6), 723–741. doi:10.1177/0022022110361707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leung, A. K., Maddux, W. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Chiu, C. (2008). Multicultural experience enhances creativity: The when and how. American Psychologist, 63(3), 169–181. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lubinski, D., Benbow, C. P., & Kell, H. J. (2014). Life paths and accomplishments of mathematically precocious males and females four decades later. Psychological Science, 25(12), 2217–2232. doi:10.1177/0956797614551371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. (2009). Cultural borders and mental barriers: The relationship between living abroad and creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 1047–1061. doi:10.1037/a0014861.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Martindale, C. (1990). The clockwork muse: The predictability of artistic change. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  51. Mueller, J. S., Melwani, S., & Goncalo, J. A. (2012). The bias against creativity: Why people desire but reject creative ideas. Psychological Science, 23(1), 13–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Niu, W., & Kaufman, J. C. (2013). Creativity of Chinese and American people: A synthetic analysis. Journal of Creative Behavior, 47, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Niu, W., & Sternberg, R. J. (2006). The philosophical roots of western and eastern conceptions of creativity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 26(1–2), 18–38. doi:10.1037/h0091265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Piirto, J. (1991). Why are there so few? (Creative women: Visual artists, mathematicians, musicians). Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 13(3), 142–147. doi:10.1080/02783199109553340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Plucker, J. A., & Beghetto, R. A. (2004). Why creativity is domain general, why it looks domain specific, and why the distinction does not matter. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 153–167). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Plucker, J. A., Beghetto, R. A., & Dow, G. T. (2004). Why isn’t creativity more important to educational psychologists? Potentials, pitfalls, and future directions in creativity research. Educational Psychologist, 39(2), 83–96. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3902_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. Phi Delta Kappan, 42, 305–311.Google Scholar
  58. Richards, R. (2007). Everyday creativity and new views of human nature: Psychological, social, and spiritual perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/11595-000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Richards, R. (2010). Everyday creativity: Process and way of life – Four key issues. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 189–215). New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511763205.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Richards, R., Kinney, D. K., Benet, M., & Merzel, A. P. (1988). Assessing everyday creativity: Characteristics of the lifetime creativity scales and validation with three large samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(3), 476–485. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.3.476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rinne, T., Steel, G. D., & Fairweather, J. (2013). The role of Hofstede’s individualism in national-level creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 129–136. doi:10.1080/10400419.2013.752293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Runco, M. A. (1996). Personal creativity: Definition and developmental issues. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Creativity from childhood to adulthood (pp. 3–30). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  63. Runco, M. A. (2004). Everyone has creative potential. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 21–30). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10692-002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Silvia, P. J., Beaty, R. E., Nusbaum, E. C., Eddington, K. M., Levin-Aspenson, H., & Kwapil, T. R. (2014). Everyday creativity in daily life: An experience-sampling study of ‘little c’ creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(2), 183–188. doi:10.1037/a0035722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who makes history and why. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychological Review, 104(1), 66–89. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.104.1.66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Simonton, D. K. (2000). Creative development as acquired expertise: Theoretical issues and an empirical test. Developmental Review, 20(2), 283–318. doi:10.1006/drev.1999.0504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Simonton, D. K. (2009). Genius 101. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Stein, M. I. (1953). Creativity and culture. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 36, 311–322. doi:10.1080/00223980.1953.9712897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1996). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human Development, 34, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Pretz, J. E. (2002). The creativity conundrum. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  72. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Pretz, J. E. (2004). A propulsion model of creative leadership. Creativity and Innovation Management, 13, 145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tang, C., Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2015). Implicit theories of creativity in computer science in the United States and China. Journal of Creative Behavior, 49, 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Taylor, C. W. (1959). The 1955 and 1957 research conferences: The identification of creative scientific talent. American Psychologist, 14(2), 100–102. doi:10.1037/h0046057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137–1148. doi:10.2307/3069429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tu, C., Dilley, A. E., & Kaufman J. C. (2015). Do we create what we watch? Creativity and entertainment preferences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. 9, 394–404. Google Scholar
  77. Viki, G. T., & Williams, M. L. J. (2013). The role of identity integration in enhancing creativity among mixed-race individuals. Journal of Creative Behavior, 48, 198–208.Google Scholar
  78. Westwood, R., & Low, D. R. (2003). The multicultural muse: Culture, creativity and innovation. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(2), 235–259. doi:10.1177/14705958030032006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Fostering creativity in product and service development: Validation in the domain of information technology. Human Factors, 53(3), 245–270. doi:10.1177/0018720811409219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhou, J., Shen, J., Wang, X., Neber, H., & Johji, I. (2013). A cross-cultural comparison: Teachers’ conceptualizations of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 25(3), 239–247. doi:10.1080/10400419.2012.730006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max Helfand
    • 1
  • James C. Kaufman
    • 1
  • Ronald A. Beghetto
    • 1
  1. 1.Neag School of EducationUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations