Conclusion: The Sources of Finnish Military Effectiveness

  • Pasi Tuunainen


The conclusion asserts that the Finnish Army exhibited military effectiveness in the Winter War because it utilized its resources close to the maximum and performed almost to its full potential. The Finns generated sufficient fighting power to successfully repel the Soviet invasion. The Finns could compensate for inferior numbers by the quality of human resources, utilizing military geography, the applied art of war, and placing their own strengths on the weaknesses of their adversaries. They demonstrated the ability to innovate and adapt to the realities of war and translate the lessons of combat into lessons learned. The Finns, who had a strong will to fight, also exhibited considerable combat power as they could inflict hard losses on the Soviets while keeping their own casualties low.


Strategic Objective Tactical Level Karelian Isthmus High Morale Inferior Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bickel, Keith B., Mars Learning: The Marine Corps’ Development of Small Wars Doctrine, 1915–1940 (Boulder: Westview 2001).Google Scholar
  2. Cohen, Eliot A., & Gooch, John, Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War (New York: The Free Press 1990).Google Scholar
  3. Cushman, John H., Challenge & Response: Military Effectiveness 1914–1945 (Washington, DC: National Defense University 1988b).Google Scholar
  4. Fennell, Jonathan, Combat and Morale in the North African Campaign (Cambridge: Cambridge UP 2011).Google Scholar
  5. Millett, Allan R., Murray, Williamson & Watman, Kenneth H., “The Effectiveness of Military Organizations”, in Millett, Allan R. & Murray, Williamson, eds., Military Effectiveness, Vol. I: The First World War (Boston: Unwin Hyman 1988a).Google Scholar
  6. Volkogonov, Dmitri, Stalin: Triumph & Tragedy (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1991).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasi Tuunainen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geographical and Historical StudiesUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland

Personalised recommendations