It is difficult to critically question a way of life that seems normal. Despite considerable prodding, I was largely ignorant and apathetic about the lives of animals until only a few years ago. What changed my perspective was not a visceral experience of violence, nor was it a philosophic argument. Instead, I started to think critically only when I witnessed those close to me modeling the barest of moral intuitions: that animals warrant our attention and ethical consideration. As I adopted this posture, a set of economic questions arose that are almost entirely outside the standard fare for scholars of economics and public policy. The two most fundamental questions are the following. Why do so many animals live such short lives in terrible conditions? What could realistically be done to change their lives? It was my attempt, as an economist, to grapple with these questions that gave rise to this book.