The External De-consolidation of Member States Increases Dissatisfaction with the EU

  • Hans Vollaard
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)


European integration, globalisation, and transportation and communication technologies have brought with them decreased costs associated with exit for regions, interest groups, companies, and individuals from EU member states, as the latter’s congruence and impermeability decreased. The use of exit options has been limited and has varied depending on the level of dissatisfaction, national loyalty, and remaining costs of exit and entry. However, the threat of (partial) exits or entry by MNEs, interest groups, rich regions, and workers has also unsettled existing coalitions and alignments within the member states. Dissatisfaction with member states’ external de-consolidation has resulted in calls for the restoration of national identity and solidarity, in conflict with calls for cosmopolitanism and international liberalisation.


State boundaries Liberalisation Intra-EU mobility Globalisation Euroscepticism Nationalism Cosmopolitanism 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Vollaard
    • 1
  1. 1.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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