Pandita Ramabai Saraswati (1858–1922)

  • Vineeta Sinha


Pandita Ramabai was a social reformer in nineteenth-century British India. She offered an unyielding critique of Hindu orthodoxy, caste and patriarchy and argued that education would raise the status of Hindu women. Ramabai was a social thinker and reformer who valued and advocated freedom of thought and action and worked tirelessly so that equality and progress could be achieved for women. Her critique of Indian and British society was carried in her overt confrontation of Hindu orthodoxy, patriarchy and British imperialism. Ramabai’s overseas travels produced reflections about the places she visited and the cultures she encountered. These writings document her observations about the societies she encountered and embody her critique of slavery, racism, patriarchy and institutionalized religion (including religious structures in Christianity) and her comparative observations about the status of women in India, England and the USA.


Social commentary Feminist consciousness Status of women Education Comparative sociology 


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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vineeta Sinha
    • 1
  1. 1.SociologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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