José Rizal (1861–1896)

  • Syed Farid Alatas


Rizal was a thinker and nationalist during the final days of the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines. He lived a short life but was an exceptionally productive thinker, unmatched by anyone in Southeast Asia, perhaps even Asia. The construction of a social theory from Rizal’s works can be founded on three aspects of his substantive concerns. Firstly, we have his views on the nature and conditions of colonial society. Secondly, there is Rizal’s critique of colonial knowledge of the Philippines. Thirdly, there is his discussion on the meaning and requirements for emancipation.


Indolence The enlightenment Colonial society Colonial knowledge Backwardness 

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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Farid Alatas
    • 1
  1. 1.SociologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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