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Lead’s Life and Times (Part One): Before Widowhood

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Part of the Christianities in the Trans-Atlantic World, 1500-1800 book series (CTAW)

Abstract

Focusing on the period of Lead’s life before she became a widow in 1670, this chapter suggests that Lead was far more radical than has been supposed. Making use of a great many archival discoveries, which form the cornerstone of the painstaking reconstruction presented here, it provides mainly circumstantial but nonetheless cumulatively overwhelming evidence that Lead’s relatively well-known autobiography (printed in German in 1696) conceals almost as much as it reveals. Constructed to reassure its intended audience of continental Spiritualists, Behmenists and Pietists of Lead’s upright character, respectable social status and divinely bestowed gifts this so-called ‘Life of the Author’ adopts a similar strategy to that observable in a number of Philadelphian publications which masked private heterodox beliefs and rituals with public professions of irenic conformity. Accordingly, key names, activities and teachings are omitted from Lead’s German biography because in the political, military and religious contexts of the mid-1690s detailing past associations would have damaged Lead’s reputation among her heterogeneous readership.

Keywords

  • Parish Register
  • East India Company
  • Church History
  • Future Husband
  • Spanish Wine

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

I am deeply grateful to the Panacea Society for generously funding my research. I have profited from the advice of Lorenza Gianfrancesco, Crawford Gribben and Lionel Laborie but remain responsible for any mistakes or shortcomings. Place of publication, where known and unless otherwise stated, is London.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Dissertatio historico-theologica, de Johannæ Leadææ Anglo-Britan. Vita (Tübingen, 1712); Johann Wolfgang Jaeger, Historia Ecclesiastica (2 vols., Hamburg, 1709–17), vol. 2, part ii, pp. 90–117.

  2. 2.

    Jane Lead, ‘Lebenslauff der Autorin’, in Sechs Unschätzbare Durch Göttliche Offenbarung und Befehl ans Liecht gebrachte Mystische Tractätlein (Amsterdam, 1696), pp. 413–23. I am grateful to Leigh Penman for his translation of this document.

  3. 3.

    Jane Lead, The Wars of David (1700), sigs. A2r–2–A2r–3.

  4. 4.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 413.

  5. 5.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 547.

  6. 6.

    E.E.G. Bulwer (ed.), The Visitation of Norfolk in the year 1563 (2 vols., Norwich, 1878–95), vol. 2, pp. 448–49, 460, 463; Walter Metcalfe (ed.), The Visitations of Suffolk … 1561, … 1577, and … 1612 (Exeter, 1882), pp. 14–15; Sheffield Archives, BFM/1228, BFM/1229, BFM/1219; Joseph Jackson Howard and Joseph Lemuel Chester (eds.), The Visitation of London anno domini 1633, 1634, and 1635, Harleian Society 15, 17 (2 vols., 1880–83), vol. 1, p. 167, vol. 2, p. 322; A.W. Hughes Clarke and Arthur Campling (eds.), The Visitation of Norfolk Anno Domini 1664, Harleian Society 85–86 (2 vols., 1933–34), vol. 1, pp. 233–34.

  7. 7.

    Francis Blomefield, An Essay towards a Topographical History of the county of Norfolk (11 vols., 1805–10), vol. 9, p. 413.

  8. 8.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 389, Topcroft parish register, baptism of ‘Ann Ward ye daughtr of Hamond Ward generosus dwellinge at ye halle place’ on 23 December 1606; Norfolk R.O., PD 443, Bedingham parish register, burial of ‘Francys the sonn of Hamon Warde gentleman’ (15 September 1621), printed in The East Anglian, 4 (1869), p. 273.

  9. 9.

    Sheffield Archives, BFM/1141.

  10. 10.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 389.

  11. 11.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 389; Edmund Farrer, The Church heraldry of Norfolk (3 vols., Norwich, 1887–93), vol. 3, p. 155; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/386 fol. 39r-v.

  12. 12.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 414.

  13. 13.

    Topcroft Hall is a grade II listed building that retains some original features including a first floor hall probably dated to the early sixteenth century, see; http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-227421-topcroft-hall-topcroft-norfolk.

  14. 14.

    Sheffield Archives, BFM/987, BFM/1139, BFM/1140, BFM/1141, BFM/1209, BFM/1212, BFM/1218; Norfolk R.O., PD 389; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/225 fols. 109r–11v.

  15. 15.

    Sheffield Archives, BFM/987; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/165 fols. 148r–49v; Sheffield Archives, BFM/1210; Norfolk Archaeology, 23 (1929), p. 321; CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 5 no. 71; Norfolk R.O., WLS XI/3, 409X2; Norfolk R.O., WLS X/6, 409X1.

  16. 16.

    B. Cozens-Hardy, ‘Some Norfolk Halls’, Norfolk Archaeology, 32 (1961), p. 192; Norfolk Heritage Explorer, http://www.heritage.norfolk.gov.uk/record-details?MNF13448. Because of reconstruction undertaken in 1870 little of the original exterior remains. Today Letheringsett Hall serves as a nursing home.

  17. 17.

    Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 9, p. 413.

  18. 18.

    Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 10, pp. 188, 189. Two other sons, William and Edward, had been baptized at Topcroft by licence from the vicar of Bedingham.

  19. 19.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 413–14; cf. Lead, Wars of David, sig. A2r–2.

  20. 20.

    Cf. Lucy Hutchinson, Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, ed. N.H. Keeble (2000), pp. 14–15.

  21. 21.

    John Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College 1349–1897 (3 vols., Cambridge, 1897–1901), vol. 1, p. 294; John Venn and J. Venn (eds.), Alumni Cantabrigienses from the earliest times to 1751 (4 vols., Cambridge, 1922–27), vol. 4, p. 330; Norfolk R.O., DN/INV 46/80, probate inventory of Thomas Tallis, master of the free school at Holt, Norfolk (1640–41).

  22. 22.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 413–14; Lead, Wars of David, sigs. A2r–2–A2r–3.

  23. 23.

    John Nickalls (ed.), Journal of George Fox (Cambridge, 1952; reprinted, 1986), p. 38; Rosemary Moore, The Light in their Consciences. The early Quakers in Britain 1646–1666 (Pennsylvania State University, 2000), pp. 120–21.

  24. 24.

    C. Durston, ‘The Puritan War on Christmas’, History Today, 35:12 (1985), http://www.historytoday.com/chris-durston/puritan-war-christmas.

  25. 25.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 414–15; Lead, Wars of David, sig. A2r–3.

  26. 26.

    John Cliffe, The World of the Country House in Seventeenth-Century England (1999), p. 133.

  27. 27.

    J. M. Blatchly, ‘Gurnall, William (bap. 1616, d. 1679)’, ODNB.

  28. 28.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/160 fols. 422v–23r; Benjamin Mackerell, The History and Antiquities Of the Flourishing Corporation of King’s-Lynn in the County of Norfolk (1738), p. 52. ODNB here erroneously follows H. McKeon, An Inquiry into the birth-place, parentage, life, and writings, of the Reverend William Gurnall (Woodbridge, 1830), p. 1, in identifying Gurnall’s mother as Catherine Dressyt. This is based on a mistranscription of the parish register, see; Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2, Lynn St Margaret parish register, marriage of ‘Gregorye Gurnall wth Katheryne Cressye wid’ on 31 December 1615.

  29. 29.

    McKeon, Inquiry into … William Gurnall, p. 5.

  30. 30.

    Blatchly, ‘Gurnall, William (bap. 1616, d. 1679)’, ODNB.

  31. 31.

    Clergy of the Church of England Database http://theclergydatabase.org.uk/; CSPD 1640–41, p. 531.

  32. 32.

    Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 9, p. 414; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/159 fols. 341v–42r.

  33. 33.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 415–16; Lead, Wars of David, sig. A2r–3.

  34. 34.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 415–16.

  35. 35.

    Clarke and Campling (eds.), Visitation of Norfolk 1664, vol. 2, pp. 199–200; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/148 fols. 134r–35r.

  36. 36.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/171 fols. 322v–25r; Farrer, Church heraldry of Norfolk, vol. 3, p. 126; Richard L. Greaves, ‘Bridge, William (1600/01–1671)’, ODNB; Clergy of the Church of England Database.

  37. 37.

    Bodl., MS Tanner 64 fols. 98, 99, 105; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/193 fols. 374v–75r; Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 3, p. 383; R.W. Ketton-Cremer, Norfolk in the Civil War (1969), p. 152.

  38. 38.

    William Sachse (ed.), Minutes of the Norwich Court of Mayoralty 1632–1635, Norfolk Record Society (1967), p. 177; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/282 fols. 297v–98v; Edmund Trench, Some Remarkable Passages in the Holy Life and Death Of … Mr Edmund Trench (1693), pp. 4–5.

  39. 39.

    TNA: PRO, E 190/35/4, fol. 26r.

  40. 40.

    Howard and Chester (eds.), Visitation of London 1633, 1634, and 1635, vol. 2, p. 322; T.C. Dale, Inhabitants of London in 1638 (1931), pp. 53–54.

  41. 41.

    W.B. Bannerman and W.B. Bannerman (eds.), The Registers of St. Stephen’s, Walbrook, and of St. Benet Sherehog, London, Harleian Society, 49–50 (1919), pp. 20, 93; A.W. Hughes Clarke (ed.), The Register of St. Clement, Eastcheap, and St. Martin Orgar, London, Harleian Society, 67–68 (1937–38), pp. 25, 26, 180, 181. Hamond and Sarah’s children were Hamond junior (baptized 1 July 1633, buried 10 July 1633), Barbary (baptized 19 August 1634, buried 6 October 1634), Joseph (baptized 28 September 1635, buried 29 September 1635), and James (baptized 12 September 1637).

  42. 42.

    Reginald Glencross (ed.), A Calendar of Marriage Licence Allegations in the Registry of the Bishop of London, vol.1, 1597 to 1648, British Record Society 62 (1937), p. 201; LMA, formerly GL, MS 10,091/22, p. 66; Howard and Chester (eds.), Visitation of London 1633, 1634, and 1635, vol. 2, p. 289; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/192 fols. 185r–86r.

  43. 43.

    Hughes Clarke (ed.), Register of St. Clement, Eastcheap, pp. 28, 29, 31, 182, 185, 186; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/421 fols. 396v–99r. Hamond and Elizabeth’s children were a chrisom (buried 16 February 1641), Barbara (baptized 6 April 1643, buried 28 January 1651), Hammond (baptized 30 January 1645), Robert I (baptized 6 September 1649, buried 27 October 1649), Robert II (born 13 February 1651), Elizabeth (baptized 10 April 1652), and a stillborn (buried 5 February 1654).

  44. 44.

    LMA, formerly GL MS 977/1, no foliation.

  45. 45.

    TNA: PRO, C 6/197/94; Clarke and Campling (eds.), Visitation of Norfolk 1664, vol. 1, p. 112.

  46. 46.

    The names, dignities and places of all the Collonells … and Ensignes of the City of London (1642), brs.; Keith Lindley, Popular Politics and Religion in Civil War London (Aldershot, 1997), pp. 207–08.

  47. 47.

    TNA: PRO, SP 19/95, p. 24; Mary Anne Everett (ed.), Calendar of the Committee for Advance of Money, part 1. 1642–45 (1888), p. 374.

  48. 48.

    LMA, formerly GL, MS 978/1, p. 8.

  49. 49.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 416.

  50. 50.

    Anthony Wood, Athenae Oxonienses (1692), vol. 2, pp. 12–13; Roger Pooley, ‘Crisp, Tobias (1600–1643)’, ODNB. The London bookseller George Thomason dated his copy of Christ Alone Exalted 22 July 1643.

  51. 51.

    Tobias Crisp, Christ Alone Exalted (1643), preface, p. 19.

  52. 52.

    C. Hill, ‘Dr Tobias Crisp, 1600–43’, in The Collected Essays of Christopher Hill. Volume Two (Brighton, 1986), pp. 141–61; D. Parnham, ‘The humbling of “High Presumption”: Tobias Crisp dismantles the puritan Ordo Salutis’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 56 (2005), pp. 50–74; D. Parnham, ‘The Covenantal Quietism of Tobias Crisp’, Church History, 75 (2006), pp. 511–43.

  53. 53.

    Lawrence Clarkson, The Lost sheep Found (1660), p. 9.

  54. 54.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 416–17; Lead, Wars of David, sig. A2r–3. Elsewhere, Jane recalled being about 18 when she had her transformative religious experience. This is accurate since she did not turn 19 until within 10 days of Crisp’s death, see; Jane Lead, A Fountain of Gardens (1697), vol. 2, sig. av.

  55. 55.

    J.F. Maclear, ‘Crisp, Tobias (1600–1643)’, in Richard Greaves and Robert Zaller (eds.), Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century (3 vols., Brighton, 1982–84), vol. 1, p. 192.

  56. 56.

    Frederick Arthur Crisp, Collections relating to the family of Crispe (1882), vol. 1, pp. 13–15, 19; Henry Waters (ed.), Genealogical Gleanings in England (2 vols., Boston, 1901), vol. 1, pp. 831–34, vol. 2, pp. 1362–63; Keith Lindley, ‘Wilson, Rowland (bap. 1613, d. 1650)’, ODNB; Michael J. Jarvis, ‘Rowe, Owen (1592/3–1661)’, ODNB.

  57. 57.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 417–18.

  58. 58.

    LMA, formerly GL, MS 978/1, p. 11; LJ, v, 663.

  59. 59.

    TNA: PRO, SP 19/3, p. 84, SP 19/5, p. 258, SP 19/95, p. 24; Everett (ed.), Calendar Committee Advance of Money, part 1, p. 374.

  60. 60.

    Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/JO/10/1/232; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/233 fols. 273r–76v.

  61. 61.

    TNA: PRO, E 179/252/15; LMA, formerly GL, MS 978/1, no pagination. John Strype would note that Three Kings Court was inhabited by wholesale dealers.

  62. 62.

    Records of London’s Livery Companies Online, http://www.londonroll.org/search.

  63. 63.

    TNA: PRO, C 6/154/186; TNA: PRO, C 6/39/295.

  64. 64.

    TNA: PRO, C 6/106/11; Thomas Birch (ed.), A Collection of State Papers of John Thurloe (7 vols., 1742), vol. 5, p. 56, vol. 6, p. 399. According to Anthony Wood, Sir John Mules was a Portuguese ambassador, see; Andrew Clark (ed.), The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, antiquary, of Oxford, 1632–1695, Oxford Historical Society 19, 21, 26, 30, 40 (5 vols., Oxford, 1891–1900), vol. 2, p. 289.

  65. 65.

    John Hassam et al. (eds.), A Volume relating to the early History of Boston containing the Aspinwall Notarial Records from 1644 to 1651 (Boston, 1903), p. 360.

  66. 66.

    Charles Firth and R.S. Rait (eds.), Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642–1660 (3 vols., 1911), vol. 2, pp. 75–78.

  67. 67.

    Valerie Pearl, ‘Thomson, Maurice (1604–1676)’, rev. ODNB; Keith Lindley, ‘Tichborne, Robert, appointed Lord Tichburne under the protectorate (1610/11–1682)’, ODNB; Tai Liu, ‘Cokayn, George (bap. 1620, d. 1691)’, ODNB; C.B. Cockett, ‘George Cokayn’, Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society, 12 (1933–36), pp. 225–35.

  68. 68.

    Firth and Rait (eds.), Acts and Ordinances, vol. 1, pp. 614–26, 958–84, 1072–105; vol. 2, pp. 24–57, 456–90; LJ, vii, 201–09, 219–30; LJ, x, 46–62.

  69. 69.

    D.E. Howell James (ed.), Norfolk Quarter Sessions Order Book 1650–1657, Norfolk Record Society 26 (1955), pp. 21, 25, 27, 28, 30.

  70. 70.

    Howell James (ed.), Norfolk Quarter Sessions, pp. 59, 60.

  71. 71.

    LPL, COMM/12B/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/308 fols. 66r–70v; Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 7, p. 56, vol. 11, p. 94; Gentleman’s Magazine, 101, part ii (1831), pp. 406–07.

  72. 72.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 418–19.

  73. 73.

    A Calendar of the freemen of Lynn, 1292–1836, Norfolk Archaeological Society (1913), p. 114; Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/125 fols. 450v–51r; Clarke and Campling (eds.), Visitation of Norfolk 1664, vol. 2, pp. 163–64; G.A. Metters, ‘The rulers of King’s Lynn in the early seventeenth century’, unpublished University of East Anglia Ph.D. thesis, 1982, pp. 58, 329.

  74. 74.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/1; Venn and Venn (eds.), Alumni Cantabrigienses, vol. 3, p. 337; Joseph Foster (ed.), The Register of Admissions to Gray’s Inn, 1521–1889 (1889), p. 115; CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 6, 7.

  75. 75.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/180 fols. 46v–47r.

  76. 76.

    Bulwer (ed.), Visitation of Norfolk 1563, vol. 2, p. 449; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/289 fol. 132r–v; Blomefield, Norfolk, vol. 4, pp. 514, 518.

  77. 77.

    Bodl., MS Tanner 64 fol. 106; Ketton-Cremer, Norfolk in Civil War, p. 154.

  78. 78.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, correspondence; Norfolk R.O., BL/F 1/12, BL/F 1/14, BL/F 1/15, BL/F 1/16, BL/F 3/12; Norfolk lists from the Reformation to the present time (Norwich, 1837), p. 16.

  79. 79.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 3.

  80. 80.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 2 nos. 11, 15; Pell papers, 5 nos. 16, 21, 71; Pell papers, correspondence nos. 57, 87, 93.

  81. 81.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 2.

  82. 82.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; Norfolk R.O., ANW 22/1, will register, Glover, fol. 268.

  83. 83.

    Calendar of freemen of Lynn, pp. 92, 96, 100, 107, 111, 114, 117; Norfolk R.O., PD 39/1, 2; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 32, 321, 333, 357, 422. John Lead the elder’s children were Katherine (baptized 1 November 1576), Margaret (baptized 29 September 1577), John (baptized 7 December 1578, buried 4 February 1639), Robert (baptized 4 February 1582), Edmund (baptized 20 September 1583, buried 14 June 1608), and Susan (baptized 28 January 1587, buried 9 December 1591). The Margaret Lead, daughter of John, buried on 11 December 1591 may have been a second daughter of that name.

  84. 84.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/112 fols. 10v–11r.

  85. 85.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/209 fol. 33r–v; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 415.

  86. 86.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/126 fol. 94r–v; Norfolk R.O. (King’s Lynn), KL/C 51/71; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 359.

  87. 87.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/160 fols. 422v–23r; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/164 fol. 22r; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 419.

  88. 88.

    Calendar of freemen of Lynn, p. 131; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/118 fols. 215r–16r; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 410.

  89. 89.

    TNA: PRO, C 2/JasI/R6/39, 44.

  90. 90.

    M.S. Giuseppi and D. McN. Lockie (eds.), Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House. Volume 19, 1607 (1965), pp. 9, 493; G. Dyfnallt Owen (ed.), Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House. Volume 24, Addenda, 1605–1668 (1976), p. 106; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 305, 358.

  91. 91.

    TNA: PRO, STAC 8/59/6; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 44–48, 358.

  92. 92.

    G.A. Metters (ed.), The King’s Lynn Port Books 1610–1614, Norfolk Record Society, 73 (2009), pp. 67, 164, 165, 170, 171, 191, 201; R.W.K. Hinton (ed.), The Port Books of Boston, 1601–40, Lincoln Record Society, 50 (1956), pp. 64–65; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 146, 147, 179, 184, 234, 244, 246, 261, 275, 280, 283, 287, 307, 333, 358.

  93. 93.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/125 fol. 450v.

  94. 94.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/1, 2. John and Mary Lead’s children were John I (baptized 3 March 1615, buried 21 May 1615), Katherine (baptized 26 January 1617, buried 5 February 1617), Barbary (baptized 26 March 1618), William (baptized 11 October 1620, buried 6 February 1670), Mary I (baptized 30 November 1622, buried 1 December 1622), John II (baptized 8 July 1630, buried 22 July 1630), Mary II (baptized 13 February 1632), and Margaret (date of baptism unknown).

  95. 95.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/1, 2.

  96. 96.

    Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 358, 422.

  97. 97.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 1 no. 8; Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2.

  98. 98.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/138 fol. 282r; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/180 fols. 46v–47r; CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 1; Pell papers, 8 nos. 107, 115; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 359–62.

  99. 99.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 5 no. 16; Pell papers, correspondence nos. 51a, 57a, 97, 81, 159; ‘Lebenslauff’, pp. 418–19.

  100. 100.

    Anon., A briefe and true Relation of the Seige and Surrendering of Kings Lyn to the Earle of Manchester (1643); Mackerell, Antiquities of King’s-Lynn, pp. 235–36; Henry Hillen, History of the Borough of King’s Lynn (Norwich, 1907), vol. 1, pp. 347–62.

  101. 101.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 8 no. 117; Pell papers, correspondence no. 66.

  102. 102.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 419; cf. Lead, Fountain of Gardens, vol. 2, sig. a2v, where she recalled being ‘the Wife of a Pious Husband’ for about 25 years.

  103. 103.

    CUL, Ch(H), Pell papers, 8 no. 117; Norfolk R.O., NCC, will register, Battelle, 81, will of Hamond Ward of Letheringsett (probate 28 March 1651).

  104. 104.

    Jane Lead, The Enochian Walks with God (1694), p. 30; Jane Lead, A Fountain of Gardens (1697), vol. 1, p. 69.

  105. 105.

    Calendar of freemen of Lynn, p. 131; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, pp. 375 n. 74, 410.

  106. 106.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/225 fol. 131r.

  107. 107.

    ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 419; Norfolk R.O., PD 39/1.

  108. 108.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 39/2; Mackerell, Antiquities of King’s-Lynn, pp. 25–26; Hillen, History of King’s Lynn, vol. 1, p. 375.

  109. 109.

    Mackerell, Antiquities of King’s-Lynn, pp. 9, 236; Hillen, History of King’s Lynn, vol. 1, pp. 365–66.

  110. 110.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/266 fol. 49v; Mackerell, Antiquities of King’s-Lynn, pp. 42, 278; Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 428. Perhaps this was the same site later used by Elijah Eyre & Co who operated the Lady Bridge Brewery from about 1820 to 1896, see; Lesley Richmond and Alison Turton (eds.), The Brewing Industry: A Guide to Historical Records (Manchester, 1990), p. 139.

  111. 111.

    TNA: PRO, C 5/395/151; TNA: PRO, C 5/41/70; TNA: PRO, C 5/150/Pt2/16; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/238 fol. 154v; Clarke and Campling (eds.), Visitation of Norfolk 1664, vol. 2, p. 183.

  112. 112.

    Metters, ‘Rulers of King’s Lynn’, p. 375 n. 74.

  113. 113.

    Edmund Carter, The History of the county of Cambridge (1819), p. 79; Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, 1 (1834), p. 127.

  114. 114.

    TNA: PRO, C 54/3624, no. 13; TNA: PRO, C 111/188, packet 23.

  115. 115.

    Firth and Rait (eds.), Acts and Ordinances, vol. 2, pp. 1320–42, 1355–1403, 1425–55.

  116. 116.

    LMA, parish register of All Hallows, Tottenham, ‘Robert Warde the sonn of Hamond Warde gent and by Elizabeth his wife was baptised Thursday the vith of September 1649’; apprenticeship of Robert Ward II, son of Hamon Ward, gentleman of Tottenham High Cross, to Benjamin Hinton, goldsmith on 19 February 1668 in Records of London’s Livery Companies Online, http://www.londonroll.org/search; LMA, ACC/0564/052.

  117. 117.

    LMA, formerly GL, MS 978/1, no pagination.

  118. 118.

    TNA: PRO, SP 18/33, fol. 54; CSPD 1652–53, p. 150.

  119. 119.

    Thomas Birch (ed.), A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe (7 vols., 1742), vol. 3, p. 200, vol. 4, pp. 396–97; TNA: PRO, SP 18/153, fol. 240; CSPD 1656–57, p. 280.

  120. 120.

    Thomas Fuller, The Church History of Britain (1655), p. 189, section vii; W.B. Patterson, ‘Fuller, Thomas (1607/8–1661)’, ODNB.

  121. 121.

    TNA: PRO, C 5/378/115; TNA: PRO, C 6/124/14; TNA: PRO, C 7/379/81; TNA: PRO, C 7/401/79; TNA: PRO, C 7/420/5; TNA: PRO, C 7/442/82.

  122. 122.

    Norfolk R.O., PD 547/1; Norfolk R.O. MC 632/8/1-16, 797x4.

  123. 123.

    Ethel Bruce Sainsbury (ed.), A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, 1660–1663 (Oxford, 1922), p. 372.

  124. 124.

    Alfred Beaven, The Aldermen of the City of London (1908), pp. 75–119 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/london-aldermen/hen3-1912.

  125. 125.

    A.W. Cornelius Hallen (ed.), The Registers of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, London (3 vols., 1889–93), vol. 2, p. 181.

  126. 126.

    Lead, Fountain of Gardens, vol. 2, sig. a2v; Jane Lead, A Fountain of Gardens. Vol. III. Part I. (1700), pp. 61–62; Jane Lead, A Fountain of Gardens. Vol. III. Part II. (1701), pp. 20–21, 304–05; cf. Lead, Wars of David, sig. A2r–2, which inaccurately dates her widowhood to 1671.

  127. 127.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 6/45 fol. 42v; ‘Lebenslauff’, p. 419.

  128. 128.

    TNA: PRO, Prob 11/357 fol. 122r-v; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/386 fol. 39r-v; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/421 fols. 396v–99r; TNA: PRO, Prob 11/502 fols. 338r–40r.

  129. 129.

    Bodl., MS Rawlinson D 106.

  130. 130.

    William Gurnall, The Christians Labour and Reward (1672).

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Hessayon, A. (2016). Lead’s Life and Times (Part One): Before Widowhood. In: Hessayon, A. (eds) Jane Lead and her Transnational Legacy. Christianities in the Trans-Atlantic World, 1500-1800. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-39614-3_2

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