Advertisement

(Im)politeness and Cultural Variation

  • Maria SifianouEmail author
  • Garcés-Conejos Blitvich

Abstract

This chapter explores the issues of universality and cultural variation of politeness norms and practices. Early approaches to politeness have been criticised for seeing them as applicable to societies as wholes. In contrast, recent discursive approaches focus instead on lay understandings and subjective evaluations of politeness in situated real-life interactions. This chapter argues that the latter limits the possibility of generalisation and, importantly, cross-cultural comparison. It shows that generalisation is needed if we aim at analyses which are not simply valid for specific participants in specific encounters. It is also needed if we are interested in understanding similarities and differences among different cultures, which however, are not seen as unified wholes but as sharing a repository from which interlocutors select practices.

Keywords

Conversation Analysis Discursive Approach Single Utterance Politeness Strategy Negative Politeness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aijmer, K., and C. Rühlemann, eds. 2015. Corpus Pragmatics: A Handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Androutsopoulos, J. 2006. Introduction: Sociolinguistics and Computer-Mediated Communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10: 419–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arundale, R. 2009. Face as Emergent in Interpersonal Communication: An Alternative to Goffman. In Face, Communication and Social Interaction, ed. F. Bargiela-Chiappini and M. Haugh, 33–54. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  4. Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bargiela-Chiappini, F. 2003. Face and Politeness: New (Insights) for Old (Concepts). Journal of Pragmatics 35: 1453–1469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2010. Facing the Future: Some Reflections. In Face, Communication and Social Interaction, ed. F. Bargiela-Chiappini and M. Haugh, 307–327. London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  7. Bargiela-Chiappini, F., and S. Harris. 2006. Politeness at Work: Issues and Challenges. Journal of Politeness Research 2: 7–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barron, A. 2005. Offering in Ireland and England. In The Pragmatics of Irish English, ed. A. Barron and K.P. Schneider, 141–176. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 2011. Variation Revisited: A Corpus Analysis of Offers in Irish English and British English. In Anglistentag 2010 Saarbrücken: Proceedings: [Proceedings of the Conference of the German Association of University Teachers of English], ed. J. Frenk and L. Steveker, 407–419. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.Google Scholar
  10. Barros García, M.J., and M. Terkourafi. 2014. First-Order Politeness in Rapprochement and Distancing Cultures: Understandings and Uses of Politeness by Spanish Native Speakers from Spain and Spanish Nonnative Speakers from the U.S. Pragmatics 24: 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bella, S. 2009. Invitations and Politeness in Greek: The Age Variable. Journal of Politeness Research 5: 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. 2012. Pragmatic Development in a Foreign Language: A Study of Greek FL Requests. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1917–1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. 2014a. Developing the Ability to Refuse: A Cross-Sectional Study of Greek Refusals. Journal of Pragmatics 61: 35–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ———. 2014b. A Contrastive Study of Apologies Performed by Greek Native Speakers and English Learners of Greek as a Foreign Language. Pragmatics 24: 679–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bella, S., and M. Sifianou. 2012. Greek Student E-mail Requests to Faculty Members. In Speech Acts and Politeness Across Languages and Cultures, ed. L. Ruiz de Zarobe and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, 89–113. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  16. Blommaert, J. 1991. How Much Culture Is There in Intercultural Communication? In The Pragmatics of Intercultural and International Communication, ed. J. Blommaert and J. Verschueren, 13–31. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum-Kulka, S. 1987. Indirectness and Politeness in Requests: Same or Different? Journal of Pragmatics 11: 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ———. 1992. The Metapragmatics of Politeness in Israeli Society. In Politeness in Language: Studies in Its History, Theory and Practice, ed. R.J. Watts, S. Ide, and K. Ehlich, 255–280. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  19. Blum-Kulka, S., J. House, and J. Kasper, eds. 1989. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  20. Bousfield, D. 2008. Impoliteness in Interaction. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Breuer, A., and R. Geluykens. 2007. Variation in British and American English Requests: A Contrastive Study. In Cross-Cultural Pragmatics and Interlanguage English, ed. B. Kraft and R. Geluykens, 107–125. München: Lincom.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, P. 2001. Politeness and Language. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. N.J. Smelser and P.B. Baltes, 11620–11624. Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, R., and A. Gilman. 1989. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare’s Four Major Tragedies. Language in Society 18: 159–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, P., and Levinson, S. C. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Originally published as Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. In Questions and Politeness: Strategies in Social Interaction, ed. E. Goody (1978), 56–289. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Bucholtz, M. 1999. Bad Examples: Transgression and Progress in Language and Gender Studies. In Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse, ed. M. Bucholtz, A.C. Liang, and L.A. Sutton, 3–24. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Chen, R. 2010. Compliment and Compliment Response Research: A Cross-Cultural Survey. In Pragmatics Across Languages and Cultures, ed. A. Trosborg, 79–101. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  27. Christie, Ch. 2005. Editorial. Journal of Politeness Research 1: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coupland, N. 2010. Introduction: Sociolinguistics in the Global Era. In The Handbook of Language and Globalization, ed. N. Coupland, 1–27. Chichester: Wiley/Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Culpeper, J. 2011a. Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 2011b. Politeness and Impoliteness. In Sociopragmatics, ed. K. Aijmer and G. Andersen, 391–436. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. ———. 2012. Epilogue: (Im)politeness: Three Issues. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1128–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———. 2015. Epilogue: The ‘How’ and the ‘What’ of (Im)politeness. In Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Im/politeness, ed. M. Terkourafi, 267–275. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Culpeper, J., and D. Archer. 2008. Requests and Directness in Early Modern English Trial Proceedings and Play Texts, 1640–1760. In Speech Acts in the History of English, ed. A.H. Jucker and I. Taavitsainen, 45–84. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davies, B.L. 2011. Discursive Histories, Personalist Ideology and Judging Intent: Analysing the Metalinguistic Discussion of Tony Blair’s ‘Slave Trade Apology’. In Discursive Approaches to Politeness, ed. LPRG, 189–219. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  35. Davies, B.L., A.J. Merrison, and M. Haugh. 2013. Epilogue. In Situated Politeness, ed. B.L. Davies, M. Haugh, and A.J. Merrison, 270–277. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  36. Eelen, G. 2001. A Critique of Politeness Theories. Manchester: St. Jerome.Google Scholar
  37. Ehlich, K. 1992. On the Historicity of Politeness. In Politeness in Language: Studies in Its History, Theory and Practice, ed. R.J. Watts, S. Ide, and K. Ehlich, 71–107. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  38. Fairclough, N. 2003. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Fernández-Amaya, L., M. Hernández-López, and P. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich. 2014. Spanish Travelers’ Expectations of Service Encounters in Domestic and International Settings. Tourism, Culture and Communication 14: 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fraser, B., E. Rintell, and J. Walters. 1980. An Approach to Conducting Research on the Acquisition of Pragmatic Competence in a Second Language. In Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research, ed. D. Larsen-Freeman, 75–91. Rowley: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  41. Fukushima, S. 2013. Evaluation of (Im)politeness: A Comparative Study Among Japanese Students, Japanese Parents and American Students on Evaluation of Attentiveness. Pragmatics 23: 275–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P. 2010a. Introduction: The status-quo and quo vadis of Impoliteness Research. Intercultural Pragmatics 7: 535–559.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 2010b. The Youtubification of Politics, Impoliteness and Polarization. In Handbook of Research on Discourse Behavior and Digital Communication: Language Structures and Social Interaction, ed. R. Taiwo, 540–563. Hershey/New York: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. ———. 2013. Introduction: Face, Identity and Im/politeness: Looking Backward, Moving Forward: From Goffman to Practice Theory. Journal of Politeness Research 9: 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Geyer, N. 2008. Discourse and Politeness: Ambivalent Face in Japanese. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  46. Goddard, C. 2012. ‘Early Interactions’ in Australian English, American English, and English English: Cultural Differences and Cultural Scripts. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1038–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Golato, A. 2002. German Compliment Responses. Journal of Pragmatics 34: 547–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ———. 2003. Studying Compliment Responses: A Comparison of DCTs and Recordings of Naturally Occurring Talk. Applied Linguistics 24: 90–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grainger, K., and S. Harris. 2007. Special Issue: Apologies: Introduction. Journal of Politeness Research 3: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grice, H.P. 1975. Logic and Conversation. In Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole and J.L. Morgan, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. Gu, Y. 1990. Politeness Phenomena in Modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics 14: 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gumperz, J.J. 1996. Introduction to Part IV. In Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, ed. J.J. Gumperz and S.C. Levinson, 359–373. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Harris, S. 2001. Being Politically Impolite: Extending Politeness Theory to Adversarial Political Discourse. Discourse & Society 12: 451–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hassall, T. 1999. Request Strategies in Indonesian. Pragmatics 9: 586–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haugh, M. 2007. The Discursive Challenge to Politeness Research: An Interactional Alternative. Journal of Politeness Research 3: 295–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. ———. 2010. Intercultural (Im)politeness and the Micro-Macro Issue. In Pragmatics Across Languages and Cultures, ed. A. Trosborg, 139–166. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 2011. Epilogue: Culture and Norms in Politeness Research. In Politeness in East Asia, ed. D.Z. Kádár and S. Mills, 252–264. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ———. 2013. Disentangling Face, Facework and Im/politeness. Sociocultural Pragmatics 1: 46–73.Google Scholar
  59. Haugh, M., and K.P. Schneider. 2012. Im/politeness Across Englishes. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1017–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Held, G. 1992. Politeness in Linguistic Research. In Politeness in Language: Studies in Its History, Theory and Practice, ed. R.J. Watts, S. Ide, and K. Ehlich, 131–153. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  61. Herbert, R.K. 1991. The Sociology of Compliment Work: An Ethnocontrastive Study of Polish and English Compliments. Multilingua 10: 381–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hickey, L. 1991. Comparatively Polite People in Spain and Britain. Association for Contemporary Iberian Studies 4: 2–7.Google Scholar
  63. Higgins, Ch. 2007. Introduction: A Closer Look at Cultural Difference: ‘Interculturality’ in Talk-in-Interaction. Pragmatics 17: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverley Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Holliday, A.R. 1999. Small Cultures. Applied Linguistics 20: 237–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Holmes, J. 1988. Paying Compliments: A Sex-Preferential Politeness Strategy. Journal of Pragmatics 12: 445–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. ———. 2012. Politeness in Intercultural Discourse and Communication. In The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication, ed. C. Bratt Paulston, S.F. Kiesling, and E.S. Rangel, 205–228. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Holmes, J., and S. Schnurr. 2005. Politeness, Humour and Gender in the Workplace: Negotiating Norms and Identifying Contestation. Journal of Politeness Research 1: 121–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Holmes, J., M. Marra, and S. Schnurr. 2008. Impoliteness and Ethnicity: Māori and Pākehā Discourse in New Zealand Workplaces. Journal of Politeness Research 4: 193–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Holmes, J., M. Marra, and B. Vine. 2012. Politeness and Impoliteness in Ethnic Varieties of New Zealand English. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1063–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. House, J., and G. Kasper. 1981. Politeness Markers in English and German. In Conversational Routine, ed. F. Coulmas, 157–185. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  72. Hymes, D.H. 1986. Discourse: Scope Without Depth. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 57: 49–89.Google Scholar
  73. Ide, S. 1989. Formal Forms and Discernment: Two Neglected Aspects of Universals of Linguistic Politeness. Multilingua 8: 223–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Janney, R.W., and H. Arndt. 1993. Universality and Relativity in Cross-Cultural Politeness Research: A Historical Perspective. Multilingua 12: 13–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jaworski, A. 1994. Apologies and Non-Apologies: Negotiation in Speech Act Realization. Text 14: 185–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. ———. 1995. ‘This Is Not an Empty Compliment!’ Polish Compliments and the Expression of Solidarity. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 5: 63–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Johnstone, B. 2008. Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  78. Jucker, A.H. 2009. Speech Act Research Between Armchair, Field and Laboratory: The Case of Compliments. Journal of Pragmatics 41: 1611–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kádár, D.Z. 2011. Postscript. In Discursive Approaches to Politeness, ed. LPRG, 245–262. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 2013. Relational Rituals and Communication: Ritual Interaction in Groups. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  81. Kádár, D.Z., and F. Bargiela-Chiappini. 2011. Introduction: Politeness Research in and Across Cultures. In Politeness Research in and Across Cultures, ed. D.Z. Kádár and F. Bargiela-Chiappini, 1–14. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kádár, D.Z., and M. Haugh. 2013. Understanding Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kádár, D.Z., and R. Márquez Reiter. 2015. (Im)politeness and (Im)morality: Insights from Intervention. Journal of Politeness Research 11: 239–260.Google Scholar
  84. Kádár, D.Z., and S. Mills. 2011. Introduction. In Politeness in East Asia, ed. D.Z. Kádár and S. Mills, 1–17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. ———. 2013. Rethinking Discernment. Journal of Politeness Research 9: 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kasper, G. 2008. Data Collection in Pragmatics Research. In Culturally Speaking: Culture, Communication and Politeness Theory, ed. H. Spencer-Oatey, 279–303. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  87. Keisanen, T., and E. Kärkkäinen. 2014. A Multitmodal Analysis of Compliment Sequences in Everyday English Interactions. Pragmatics 24: 649–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kohnen, Th. 2015. Speech Acts: A Diachronic Perspective. In Corpus Pragmatics: A Handbook, ed. K. Aijmer and Ch. Rühlemann, 52–79. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kopytko, R. 1995. Against Rationalistic Pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics 23: 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lakoff, R. 1973. The Logic of Politeness; or, Minding Your P’s and Q’s. Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 292–305. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar
  91. Leech, G.N. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  92. ———. 2007. Politeness: Is There an East-West Divide? Journal of Politeness Research 3: 167–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. ———. 2014. The Pragmatics of Politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lempert, M. 2012. Indirectness. In The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication, ed. C. Bratt Paulston, S.F. Kiesling, and E.S. Rangel, 180–204. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Locher, M.A. 2010. Introduction: Politeness and Impoliteness in Computer-Mediated Communication. Journal of Politeness Research 6: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. ———. 2013. Situated Impoliteness: The Interface Between Relational Work and Identity Construction. In Situated Politeness, ed. B.L. Davies, M. Haugh, and A.J. Merrison, 187–208. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  97. Maíz-Arévalo, C. 2013. ‘Just Click ‘Like’’’: Computer-Mediated Responses to Spanish Compliments. Journal of Pragmatics 51: 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maíz-Arévalo, C., and A. García-Gómez. 2013. ‘You Look terrific!’ Social Evaluation and Relationships in Online Compliments. Discourse Studies 15: 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Manes, J. 1983. Compliments: A Mirror of Cultural Values. In Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition, ed. N. Wolfson and E. Judd, 96–102. Rowley: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  100. Manes, J., and N. Wolfson. 1981. The Compliment Formula. In Conversational Routines, ed. F. Coulmas, 115–132. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  101. Matsumoto, Y. 1988. Reexamination of the Universality of Face: Politeness Phenomena in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics 12: 403–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. ———. 1989. Politeness and Conversational Universals: Observations from Japanese. Multilingua 8: 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McHoul, A., M. Rapley, and Ch. Antaki. 2008. You Gotta Light? On the Luxury of Context for Understanding Talk in Interaction. Journal of Pragmatics 40: 827–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Merrison, A.J., J.J. Wilson, B.L. Davies, and M. Haugh. 2012. Getting Stuff Done: Comparing E-mail Requests from Students in Higher Education in Britain and Australia. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1077–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mills, S. 2003. Gender and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. ———. 2009. Impoliteness in a Cultural Context. Journal of Pragmatics 41: 1047–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. ———. 2011. Discursive Approaches to Politeness and Impoliteness. In Discursive Approaches to Politeness, ed. LPRG, 19–56. Berlin/Boston: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  108. ———. 2013. Communities of Practice and Politeness. In Situated Politeness, ed. B. L. Davies, M. Haugh, and A. J. Merrison, 1–23. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  109. Mills, S., and D.Z. Kádár. 2011. Politeness and Culture. In Politeness in East Asia, ed. D.Z. Kádár and S. Mills, 21–44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Noelle-Neumann, E. 1974. The Spiral of Silence: A Theory of Public Opinion. Journal of Communication 24: 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nwoye, O.G. 1992. Linguistic Politeness and Socio-Cultural Variations of the Notion of Face. Journal of Pragmatics 18: 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. O’Driscoll, J. 2011. Review of F. Bargiela-Chiappini & M. Haugh (Eds.). 2009. Face, Communication and Social Interaction. London: Equinox. Journal of Politeness Research, 7: 153–157.Google Scholar
  113. Ogiermann, E. 2009a. Politeness and in-Directness Across Cultures: A Comparison of English, German, Polish and Russian Requests. Journal of Politeness Research 5: 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. ———. 2009b. On Apologising in Negative and Positive Politeness Cultures. Amsterdam/Philadephia: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. ———. 2015. In/directness in Polish Children’s Requests at the Dinner Table. Journal of Pragmatics 82: 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pinker, S. 2007. The Evolutionary Social Psychology of Off-Record Indirect Speech Acts. Intercultural Pragmatics 4: 437–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pizziconi, B. 2007. The Lexical Mapping of Politeness in British English and Japanese. Journal of Politeness Research 3: 207–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. ———. 2011. Honorifics: The Cultural Specificity of a Universal Mechanism in Japanese. In Politeness in East Asia, ed. D.Z. Kádár and S. Mills, 45–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Placencia, M.E., and Lower, A. 2013. Your Kids Are so Stinkin’ Cute! :-): Complimenting Behavior on Facebook Among Family and Friends. Intercultural Pragmatics, 10: 617–646.Google Scholar
  120. Schegloff, E. 2002. Reflections on Research on Telephone Conversation: Issues of Cross- Cultural Scope and Scholarly Exchange, Interactional Import and Consequences. In Telephone Calls: Unity and Diversity in Conversational Structure Across Languages and Cultures, ed. K.K. Luke and T.-S. Pavlidou, 249–281. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. ———. 2003. The Surfacing of the Suppressed. In Studies in Language and Social Interaction: In Honor of Robert Hopper, ed. Ph.J. Glenn, C.D. LeBaron, and J. Mandelbaum, 241–262. Mahwah/London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  122. Schneider, K.P. 2005. No Problem, You’re Welcome, Anytime: Responding to Thanks in Ireland, England, and the USA. In The Pragmatics of Irish English, ed. A. Barron and K.P. Schneider, 101–140. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  123. Scollon, R., and S.W. Scollon. 2001. Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  124. ———. 2003. Discourse and Intercultural Communication. In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, and H.E. Hamilton, 538–547. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  125. Searle, J. 1969. Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sidnell, J. 2008. Alternate and Complementary Perspectives on Language and Social Life: The Organization of Repair in Two Caribbean Communities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12: 477–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sifianou, M. 1992. Politeness Phenomena in England and Greece: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  128. ———. 1997. Politeness and Off Record Indirectness. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 126: 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. ———. 2001. ‘Oh! How Appropriate’: Compliments and Politeness. In Linguistic Politeness Across Boundaries: The Case of Greek and Turkish, ed. A. Bayraktaroğlu and M. Sifianou, 391–430. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. ———. 2012. Disagreements, Politeness and Face. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1554–1564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sifianou, M., and A. Tzanne. 2010. Conceptualizations of Politeness and Impoliteness in Greek. Intercultural Pragmatics 7: 661–687.Google Scholar
  132. Spencer-Oatey, H. 2005. (Im)politeness, Face and Perceptions of Rapport: Unpackaging Their Bases and Interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research 1: 95–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. ———. 2008. Introduction. In Culturally Speaking: Culture, Communication and Politeness Theory, ed. H. Spencer-Oatey, 2nd ed., 1–8. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  134. Strauss, C. 2004. Cultural Standing in Expression of Opinion. Language in Society 33: 161–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Strecker, I. 1988. The Social Practice of Symbolization: An Anthropological Analysis. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  136. Taavitsainen, I., and A.H. Jucker. 2008. Speech Acts Now and Then. In Speech Acts in the History of English, ed. A.H. Jucker and I. Taavitsainen, 1–23. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Terkourafi, M. 2005. Beyond the Micro-Level in Politeness Research. Journal of Politeness Research 1: 237–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. ———. 2011. From Politeness1 to Politeness2: Tracking Norms of Im/politeness Across Time and Space. Journal of Politeness Research 7: 159–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. ———. 2014. The Importance of Being Indirect: A New Nomenclature for Indirect Speech. Belgian Journal of Linguistics 28: 45–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thomas, J. 1983. Cross−Cultural Pragmatic Failure. Applied Linguistics 4: 91–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Trosborg, A. 1995. Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints and Apologies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Trudgill, P. 1972. Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society 1: 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tzanne, A. 2001. What You’re Saying Sounds Very Nice and I’m Delighted to Hear It!’: Some Considerations on the Functions of Presenter Initiated Simultaneous Speech in Greek Panel Discussions. In Linguistic Politeness Across Boundaries: The Case of Greek and Turkish, ed. A. Bayraktaroğlu, and M. Sifianou, 271–306. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  144. van der Bom, I., and S. Mills. 2015. A Discursive Approach to the Analysis of Politeness Data. Journal of Politeness Research 11: 179–206.Google Scholar
  145. Watts, R.J. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. ———. 2005. Linguistic Politeness Research. Quo vadis? In Politeness in Language: Studies in Its History, Theory and Practice, ed. R.J. Watts, S. Ide, and K. Ehlich, 2nd ed., xi–xivii. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wieland, M. 1995. Complimenting Behaviour in French/American Cross-Cultural Dinner Conversations. The French Review 68: 796–812.Google Scholar
  148. Wierzbicka, A. 1985. Different Cultures, Different Languages, Different Speech Acts: Polish vs English. Journal of Pragmatics 9: 145–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. ———. 2014. Imprisoned in English: The Hazards of English as a Default Language. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Wolfson, N. 1976. Speech Events and Natural Speech: Some Implications for Sociolinguistic Methodology. Language in Society 5: 189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. ———. 1981. Compliments in Cross-Cultural Perspective. TESOL Quarterly 15: 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. ———. 1983. An Empirically Based Analysis of Complimenting in American English. In Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition, ed. N. Wolfson and E. Judd, 82–95. Rowley: Newbury House Publishers.Google Scholar
  153. Wolfson, N., and J. Manes. 1980. The Compliment as a Social Strategy. Papers in Linguistics: International Journal of Human Communication 13: 391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Yuan, L. 2002. Compliments and Compliments Responses in Kunming Chinese. Pragmatics 12: 183–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations