We have considered several sets of relationships: the relationships between economics and planning, economics and housing, and planning and housing. As these relationships have been explored, a fourth set of relationships - those between markets and government - have been a recurring theme influencing the analysis of how each of the other sets of relationships might work and does work in practice. We have considered these relationships in the context of institutional arrangements in Europe and America, with some of the more detailed evaluation concentrating on Britain. Throughout the exploration the emphasis has been on the use of economics to analyse problems and to propose solutions to those problems. The purpose of land-use planning, the instruments of planning and the consequences of planning have been considered. In European countries, the purpose of planning is couched in a variety of terms including regulating development in the public interest, coordinating decisions about land use, avoiding incompatible land uses, and ensuring a supply of socially desirable land uses. Public policy objectives for planning in Europe have been contrasted with objectives tied to preventing conflicts between private interests in land in the USA.
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