The Migration-Security Nexus: International Migration and Security Before and After 9/11

  • Thomas Faist


September 11 reminded us that terrorism as a method of spreading mass fear is not only used by authoritarian states and dictatorships but also by non-state actors, in this case, the network Al-Qaeda. Undoubtedly, what is now called 9/11 came as a shock to all of us although it was not the first instance of spectacular non-state violence and terrorism. Yet it was a unique case of wanton destruction directed at a national and global nerve center. It is different from acts grounded in organizations with clear political goals such as ethno-nationalist movements which are usually labeled terrorist by the governments of countries affected—for example, the Basque ETA in Spain or the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Northern Ireland. 9/11 certainly has global ramifications which transcend the regional or national character of the organizations just mentioned. Yet while 9/11 may mark a turning point in the history of non-state terrorism, it is part of the politics of terrorism and reflects the changing trench lines and clashes in world politics, in this case the world after the cold war. To classify the phenomenon is fraught with difficulties, not least because the term terrorism is itself part of a semantic war. For example, during the cold war, the United States spoke of Moscow as the source of terrorism, and in the post–cold war disorder since 2001 the networks of Al-Qaeda around Osama bin Laden have become the center of attention. Increasingly, fears of communist takeover and infiltration have been replaced in popular and mass media coverage by more diffuse perceptions of transnational threats associated with organized crime, drug trafficking, and environmental disasters—and not to forget, international migration.


Organize Crime International Migration Drug Trafficking Security Threat Muslim Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison, G. (1971), The Essence of Decision, Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (1991), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Second Edition, London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Birg, H. (2001), Die demographische Zeitenwende. Der Bevölkerungsrückgang in Deutschland und Europa, Muenchen: C. H. Beck.Google Scholar
  4. Buzan, B., O. Waever, and J. de Wilde (1998), Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.Google Scholar
  5. Césari, J. (2001), “Islam et l’extérieur, musulmans de l’intérieur: deux visions après le 11 septembre 2001,” Cultures et Conflit, 44, pp. 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coser, L. (1956), The Functions of Social Conflict, New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cottam, M. (1994), Images and Intervention: U.S. Policies in Latin America, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  8. Davies, R. (2000), “Neither here nor there? The Implications of Global Diasporas for (Inter)National Security,” in D. T. Graham and N. T. Poku (eds) Migration, Globalisation and Human Security, London: Routledge, pp. 23–46.Google Scholar
  9. Eurobarometer (2001), Flash Eurobarometer 114: International Crisis. Released in December 2001,,accessed on July 14, 2003.
  10. Faist, T. (1994), “How to Define a Foreigner? The Symbolic Politics of Immigration in German Partisan Discourse, 1978–1993,” West European Politics, 17, 1, pp. 50–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Faist, T. (2000a), The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faist, T. (ed.) (2000b), Transstaatliche Räume. Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur in und zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.Google Scholar
  13. Fetzer, J. S. and J. C. Soper (2002), “Public Attitudes toward European Muslims before and after September 11,” Paper prepared for delivery at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, August 29–September 1, 2002., document accessed on July 14, 2003.
  14. Fix, M., J. S. Passel, with M. E. Enchautegui and W. Zimmermann (1994), Immigration and Immigrants: Setting the Record Straight, Washington DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Gibson, J. L. (1998), “A Sober Second Thought: An Experiment in Persuading Russians to Tolerate,” American Journal of Political Science, 42, pp. 819–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, and J. Perraton (1999), Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Herberg, W. (1955), Protestant, Catholic, Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hirschman, A. O. (1970), Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Huntington, S. (1995), The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. IOM (International Organization of Migration) (2001) World Migration Report, Geneva: Bernan Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Kant, I. (1970), “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch,” in Political Writings, H. S. Reiss (ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (reprinted in 2000 ), pp. 93–130.Google Scholar
  22. Keck, M. and K. Sikkink (eds.) (1998), Activists Beyond Borders: Transnational Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kepel, G. (1997), Allah in the West: Islamic Movements in America and Europe, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kurth, J. (1994), “The Real Clash,” The National Interest, 37, pp. 3–15.Google Scholar
  25. Leonard, K. (2003), Muslims in the U.S. The State of Research, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, B. (2003), The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror, London: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  27. Miller, M. (2000), “A Durable International Migration and Security Nexus: The Problem of the Islamic Periphery in Transatlantic Ties,” in D. Grahm and N. Poku (eds.) Redefining Security: International Migration and Global Security, London: Praeger, pp. 15–27.Google Scholar
  28. Ruggie, J. G. (1993), “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations,” International Organization, 47, 2, pp. 139–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sales, S. M. and K. E. Friend (1973), “Success and Failure as Determinants of Level of Authoritarianism,” Behavioral Science, 18, pp. 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saxton, A. (1971), The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Shain, Y. (1989), The Frontier of Loyalty. Political Exiles in the Age of the Nation-State, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Sheffer, G. (1993), “Ethnic Diasporas: A Threat to Their Hosts?” in Myron Weiner (ed.) International Migration and Security, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 263–285.Google Scholar
  33. SOPEMI (1991), Trends in International Migration, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  34. Stern, J. (1999), The Ultimate Terrorists, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Weiner, M. (1995), International Migration and Security, Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  36. Zolberg, A. R. (1987), “‘Wanted but Not Welcome’: Alien Labor in Western Development,” in W. Alonso (ed.) Population in an Interacting World, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 36–73.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Y. Michal Bodemann and Gökçe Yurdakul 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Faist

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations