Advertisement

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Africa’s Liability for the Next Millennium

  • John O. Oucho
Part of the Migration, Minorities and Citizenship book series (MMC)

Abstract

At the turn of the twenty-first century Africa is ushering into the millennium the problem of forced migration, which remains a liability in the continent’s development. From Algeria to Namibia, Sierra Leone to the Horn of Africa and the Comoro Islands, the number of refugees and internally displaced person (IDPs) has been mounting with no end in sight. In this seemingly endless process, some African states have remained producers (senders) and others recipients of refugees while at the same time toying with the ever expanding waves of IDPs, whose problem affects virtually all states in the region. While the very international nature of refugees has pitched its concern at the international level, including the involvement of the United Nations as well as international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the national scale of internally displaced persons has localised concerns, with state intervention often partisan. Yet, IDPs and refugees constitute a continuum as most of the former graduate into the latter and as the two conditions interchange from time to time.

Keywords

African State Displace Person Forced Migration Habitual Residence Population Displacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adekanye, J. B. (1998) ‘Conflicts, Loss of State Capacities and Migration in Contemporary Africa’, in R. Appleyard (ed.), Emigration Dynamics in Developing Countries, vol. 1, Sub Saharan Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate, 165–206.Google Scholar
  2. Ayiemba, E. H. O. and J. O. Oucho (1995) The Refugee Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Population Paper, 4, Nairobi: African Population and Environment Institute.Google Scholar
  3. Beattie, I. (1998a) ‘Ghana’, in Janie Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People: a Global Survey, London: Earthscan, pp. 41–2.Google Scholar
  4. Beattie, I. (1998b) ‘Mauritania’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 48–9.Google Scholar
  5. Beattie, I. (1998c) ‘Senegal’, in Hampton (ed.) Internally Displaced People, 52–3.Google Scholar
  6. Beattie, I. (1998d) ‘Sierra Leone’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 53–5.Google Scholar
  7. Bilsborrow, R. E. and H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo (1992) ‘Population Driven Changes in Land Use in Developing Countries’, AMBIO, 2, 1, 37–45.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, R., and F. M. Deng (1998) Masses in Flight, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, Roberta (1996) Protecting the Internally Displaced’, in US Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey 1996, Washington, DC: Immigration and Refugee Services of America, 20–7.Google Scholar
  10. El-Hinnawi, E. (1985) Environmental Refugees, Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  11. Fain, L., S. Redding and P. Swahn (1998) ‘Sudan’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 84–7.Google Scholar
  12. Gallagher, D. (1989) ‘The Evaluation of the International Refugee System’, International Migration Review 23, 3, 579–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hampton, Janie (ed.) (1998) Internally Displaced People: a Global Survey, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Hansen, A., and M. Davidheiser (1998) ‘Eritrea’, in Hampton (ed.) Internally Displaced People, 78–80.Google Scholar
  15. Human Rights Watch (1997) Failing the Internally Displaced: the UNDP Displaced Persons Program in Kenya, New York: Human Rights Watch/Africa.Google Scholar
  16. Human Rights Watch/Africa Watch (1993) State Sponsored Ethnic Violence in Kenya, New York: HRW/Africa Watch.Google Scholar
  17. Ibeanu, O. (1998) ‘Nigeria’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 49–52.Google Scholar
  18. Kleine-Ahlbrandt, S. (1998) ‘Rwanda’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 68–73.Google Scholar
  19. Koser, K. (1996) ‘Changing Agendas in Forced Migration: a Report on the Fifth International Research and Advisory Panel’, Journal of Refugees Studies, 9, 4, 353–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McCall, M. (1985) ‘Environmental and Agricultural Impacts of Tanzania’s Villagisation Programme’, in J. I. Clarke, M. Khogali and L. A. Kosinski (eds), Population and Development Projects in Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 123–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maro, P. S. (1990) ‘Resettlement in Africa: Policies, Achievements and Prospects’, in Union for African Population Studies, Conference on the Role of Migration in African Development Issues and Policies for the 90s, vol. I, commissioned papers, Dakar: UAPS, pp. 55–81.Google Scholar
  22. Minear, L. and R. C. Kent (1998) ‘Rwanda’s Internally Displaced: a Conundrum within a Conundrum’, in R. Cohen and F. M. Deng (eds), The Forsaken People: Case Studies of the Internally Displaced, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 57–95.Google Scholar
  23. Mugumya, G. and E. Mooney (1998) ‘Uganda’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 73–5.Google Scholar
  24. Mullen, P. (1998) ‘Burundi’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 57–62.Google Scholar
  25. Nowrojee, B. (1998a) ‘Liberia’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 42–5.Google Scholar
  26. Nowrojee, B. (1998b) ‘Kenya’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 65–8.Google Scholar
  27. Olorunsola, V. A. (ed.) (1972) The Politics of Cultural Sub-Nationalism in Africa, Garden City, New York: Anchor Press.Google Scholar
  28. Oucho, J. O. (1997) ‘The Ethnic Factor in Internal Displacement of Populations in Sub-Saharan Africa’, African Journal of Political Science, 2, 2, 104–17.Google Scholar
  29. Oucho, J. O. (1996a) Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflict in Kenya, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.Google Scholar
  30. Oucho, J. O. (1996b) ‘Migration and Ethnic Relations in Colonial and Independent Kenya’, paper prepared for the Conference on Migration and Culture Contact: Patterns of Confrontation and Coexistence in a Changing World, Amman, Jordan, 11–14 October.Google Scholar
  31. Oucho, J. O. (1996c) ‘Refugees and Displacement in Sub-Saharan Africa: Instability due to Ethnic and Political Conflicts’, in A. Adepoju and T. Hammar (eds), International Migration in and from Africa: Dimensions, Challenges and Prospects, Dakar, Senegal: Population Human Resources and Development in Africa (PHRDA) and Stockholm: Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO), 161–87.Google Scholar
  32. Redding, S. and A. Hansen (1998a) ‘Ethiopia’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 80–1.Google Scholar
  33. Redding, S. and A. Hansen (1998b) ‘Somalia’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 81–4.Google Scholar
  34. Sangara, B. A. (1998) ‘Congo’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 62–5.Google Scholar
  35. Talbot, L. M. (1986) ‘Demographic Factors in Resource Depletion and Environmental Degradation in East African Rangelands’, Population and Development Review, 12, 3, 441–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tolba, M. K. (1992) Saving Our Planet: Challenges and Hope, London: Chapman Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (1995) The State of the World’s Refugees: In Search of Solutions New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (1997) ‘Rebuilding a War-Torn Society: a Review of the UNHCR Reintegration Programme for Mozambican Returnees’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 16, 2, 24–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. US Committee for Refugees (1996) World Refugee Survey 1996, Washington, DC: Immigration and Refugee Services of America.Google Scholar
  40. Vohra, Shyla (1998) ‘Mali’, in Hampton (ed.), Internally Displaced People, 45–8.Google Scholar
  41. World Council of Churches (1996) A Moment to Choose: Risking to be uprooted People: A Resource Book, Geneva: World Council of Churches, Unit IV, Sharing and Service, Refugee and Migration Service.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John O. Oucho

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations