As noted in Volume 1, Chapter 1, in the various studies published on China’s financial assistance to developing countries there were, and are, large discrepancies in the value of China’s help reported. There were also significant disagreements about where China’s foreign assistance went in terms of both countries and regions.


Foreign Investment Foreign Policy Recipient Country Chinese Leader Foreign Assistance 
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  1. 1.
    David Shambaugh, China Goes Global: The Partial Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 61. The Foreign Ministry and some other ministries declassify materials after 30 years, but they are often not made available and many documents are not included in the declassification process.Google Scholar
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    In some cases the recipients have been paid less than the market value for their resources; in some other cases it has been the opposite. This issue has been mentioned several times in this book. The most notable case of China paying less for resources is its buying petroleum from Venezuela for as little as 6 dollars a barrel (when the world market price neared 100). Under Hugo Chavez, Venezuela, of course, gave “friendly prices” to many countries. Also China may be said to have used some of the money to build oil refineries in Cuba, a country Venezuela was also assisting. See Juan Pablo Cardenal and Heriberto Araujo, China’s Silent Army: The Pioneers, Traders, Fixers and Workers Who Are Remaking the World in Beijing’s Image (New York: Crown, 2014), p. 134. One of the most obvious cases of China paying more than the market price was its purchase of a copper mine in Afghanistan. However, there are a number of other instances.Google Scholar
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