Women Legislators in the Twenty-First Century
  • Harriet B. Applewhite


In France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, rapid cultural changes have a political dimension. Wives now work for pay; men care for children and aging parents some or all of the time; children go to school at younger ages and stay later in the day; and political parties have become more polarized over these and other issues. Changes in gender roles underlie the political culture. Girls and boys and wives and husbands have more choices, can pursue different issues, and no longer feel constrained by prescribed responsibilities and opportunities. Fewer people may vote, but an interest in political office is a viable option for anyone finding an interest in politics.


Europe Income Syria Turkey Kelly 


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  1. 8.
    Sarah Childs and Mona Lena Krook, “Analyzing Women’s Substantive Representation: From Critical Mass to Critical Actors,” Government and Opposition: 44, No. 2 (2009): 125–45. See also Jane Jaquette, “Women in Power: From Tokenism to Critical Mass,” Foreign Policy, No. 108 (1997): 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 9.
    Tali Mendelberg, Christopher F. Kaplowitz, and J. Baxter Oliphant, “Gender Inequality in Deliberation: Unpacking the Black Box of Interaction,” Perspectives on Politics, 12, No. 1 (2014): 18–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Harriet Applewhite 2015

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  • Harriet B. Applewhite

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