Cultural Essentialism and Foreigner-as-Criminal Discourse
With a relatively broad focus, this chapter explores the consequences of cultural essentialism — “a system of belief grounded in a conception of human beings as ‘cultural’ (and under certain conditions territorial and national) subjects, i.e., bearers of a culture, located within a bordered world, which defines them and differentiates them from others” (Grillo, 2003, p. 158) — in relation to identifying culture as an excuse through foreigner-as-criminal discourse in Japan. Demonstrated are the ways in which powerful public figures (e.g., politicians, lawmakers, police officers, and criminal court judges) exploit a particular brand of foreigner-as-criminal discourse — paralleling their “politics of anti-multiculturalism” (Eisenberg, 2009, p. 78) — as an integral part of the ideological management of the nation-state.
KeywordsCriminal Justice Police Officer Prime Minister Crime Statistic Liberal Democratic Party
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Appadurai, A. (2013). The Fture as Cultural Fact. London: Verso.Google Scholar
- Bayart, J.-F. (2005). The Illusion of Cultural Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Bayley, D. H. (1976). Force of Order: Police Behavior in Japan and the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Benhabib, S. (2002). The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Bestor, T. C. (1989). Neighborhood Tokyo. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Brinsley, J., & Yamamura, K. (2007, February 9th). Japan threatened by China, its own timidity: Ishihara (Update 1). Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=avIXVI1vqIKo
- Caron, B. (2003). Community, democracy and performance. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://junana.com/CDP/corpus/GLOSSARY4.html.
- Denoon, D., Hudson, M., McCormack, G., & Morris-Suzuki, T. (Eds.) (2001). Multicultural Japan: Palaeolithic to Postmodern. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Eisenberg, J. (2009). From neo-enlightenment to nihonjinron : The politics of anti-multiculturalism in Japan and the Netherlands. Macalester International, 22, pp. 77–107.Google Scholar
- Fenwick, M. (2008). Japan. In J. Winterdyk & G. Antonopoulos (Eds.), Racist Victimization: International Reflections and Perspectives (pp. 169–184). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Flowers, R. B., & Flowers, L. H. (2001). Murders in the United States: Crimes, killers and victims of the twentieth century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.Google Scholar
- Gallin, A. J. (1994). The cultural defense: Undermining the policies against domestic violence. Boston College Law Review, 35(3), pp. 723–745.Google Scholar
- Gough, C. (2002, April 19th). World cup special: Our man in Tokyo. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nottingham/spotlight/2002/04/carl_gough.shtml.
- Graburn, N. H. H., Ertl, J., & Tierney, R. K. (Eds.) (2008). Multiculturalism in the new Japan: Crossing the boundaries within. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
- Herbert, C. (1991). Culture and Anomie: Ethnographic Imagination in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
- Herbert, W. (1996). Foreign Workers and Law Enforcement in Japan. London: Kegan Paul International.Google Scholar
- Honig, B. (1999). My culture made me do it. In S. M. Okin (Ed.), Is multicul-turalism Bad for Women? (pp. 35–40). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Komai, H. (Ed.) (2000). Joint statement by scholars demanding the retraction of Governor Ishihara’s remarks viewing undocumented foreigners as dangerous. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.geocities.co.jp/CollegeLife-Labo/8108/ishihara-e.htm.
- Kubota, Y. (2007, November 20th). Japan fingerprints foreigners as antiterror move. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/11/20/us-japan-fingerprinting-idUST23858020071120.
- Lanasolyluna, H. (2013, October, 23rd). Japan: No safe country for foreign women. The Japan Times. Retrieved June 8, 2014 from http://www.japan-times.co.jp/community/2013/10/23/voices/japan-no-safe-country-for-foreign-women/.
- Lee, C. (2007). Cultural convergence: Interest convergence theory meets the cultural defense? Arizona Law Review, 49, pp. 911–959.Google Scholar
- Lee, S. I., Murphy-Shigematsu, S., & Befu, H. (Eds.) (2006). Japan’s Diversity Dilemmas: Ethnicity, Citizenship, and Education. New York: iUniverse.Google Scholar
- Mainichi Shinbun (2007, November 14th). Celebrity uses fingerprint photo-op to call for cut in foreign crime. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://mdn.mainichi.jp/national/news/20071114p2a00m0na030000c.html.
- Manabe, K., & Befu, H. (1992). Japanese cultural identity: An empirical investigation of nihonjinron. Japanstudien, 4, pp. 89–102.Google Scholar
- Matsubara, H. (2004, February 20th). Web site lets locals rat on foreigners. The Japan Times. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2004/02/20/national/web-site-lets-locals-rat-on-foreigners/#. VUG2LRekLdE.
- Matthews, G., & White, B. (Eds.) (2004). Japan’s Changing Generations: Are Young People Creating A New Society? London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McVeigh, B. (2006). Nationalisms of Japan. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Menju, T. (2012). Accepting immigrants: Japan’s last opportunity for economic revival. Asia Pacific Bulletin, 169, pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
- National Police Agency White Paper (2011). Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.npa.go.jp/hakusyo/h23/english/White_Paper_2011.pdf.
- National Police Agency White Paper (2010). Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.npa.go.jp/hakusyo/h22/english/White_Paper_2010.pdf.
- Niehaus, A., & Seinsch, M. (2007). Olympic Japan: Ideals and Realities of (Inter) nationalism. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag.Google Scholar
- Oguma, E. (2002). A Genealogy of “Japanese” Self-images (Trans. D. Askew). Melbourne, Australia: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
- Said, E. (1994). Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
- Scanlon, C. (2002, April 17th). Japan prepares for hooligan threat. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1935390.stm.
- Shipper, A. W. (2008). Fighting for Foreigners: Immigration and Its Impact on Japanese democracy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Sorimachi, K. (2009). Japan’s criminal justice system and crimes committed by foreigners. 21st century series — No 13. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.lec-jp.com/speaks/info_013.html.
- Spatz, M. (1991). Lesser crime: A comparative study of legal defenses for men who kill their wives. Columbia Journal of Law & Social Problems, 24(4), pp. 597–638.Google Scholar
- Takahashi, H. (1989). Tōkyō gaikokujin saiban 4. Naze Shinshia wa keimusho e okurareta no ka, QA 12, pp. 91–95.Google Scholar
- The Japan Times (2004, February 21st). Service to rat online on illegal aliens a racist ploy: Amnesty. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.japan-times.co.jp/text/nn20040221a8.html.
- Tsuda, T., & Cornelius, W. (2004). Japan: Government policy, immigrant reality. In W. A. Cornelius, T. Tsuda, P. L. Martin, & J. F. Hollifield (Eds.), Controlling Migration: A Global Perspective (pp. 439–476). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Tunick, M. (1998). Practices and Principles: Approaches to Ethical and Legal Judgment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Ueno, K. (2005). Suicide as Japan’s major export? A note on Japanese suicide culture. Revista Espaço Acadêmico, (44). Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.espacoacademico.com.br/044/44eueno_ing.htm.
- United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Human Rights (2006). Report of the special rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Doudou Diène, Mission to Japan. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/7243396.63982391.html.Google Scholar
- Usui, N. (2000). The anti-English linguistic imperialism movement: Savior of Japanese identity or harbinger of petit nationalism? Educational Studies, 42, pp. 277–303.Google Scholar
- Wagner, R. (1975). The Invention of Culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Watts, J. (2002, May 20th). Hosts dread of the English disease. The Guardian. Retrieved January 25, 2015 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2002/may/20/worldcupfootball2002.sport10.
- Wolf, S. (1987). Sanity and the metaphysics of responsibility. In F. Schoeman (Ed.), Responsibility Character and the Emotions (pp. 46–62). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Xenakis, S., & Cheliotis, L.K. (2013). Crime and economic downturn: The complexity of crime and crime politics in Greece since 2009. British Journal of Criminology, 53(5), pp. 719–745.Google Scholar
- Yamamoto, R. (2004). Alien attack? The construction of foreign criminality in contemporary Japan. In A. Germer, & A. Moerke (Eds.), Grenzgänge: (De-) konstruktion Kollektiver Identitäten in Japan (pp. 27–57). Munich, Germany: Iudicium.Google Scholar
- Yonezawa, A. (2009). The internationalization of Japanese higher education: Policy debates and realities. Nagoya Higher Education Research, 9, pp. 199–219.Google Scholar